Why the Islamic Caliphate is the Model, Inspiration and Hope of Every Muslim: AS

Why the Islamic Caliphate is the Model Inspiration and Hope of Every Muslim

لماذا الخلافة الإسلامية

هي الأسوة والأمل لكل مسلم

Preparation and Presentation by

Abu Salman Deya ud-Deen Eberle

جمع وتقديم

أبو ســـلمان ضياء الدين ابرلي

86 pages
Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION
MEANING OF KHALEEFAH AND KHALAFAH
SOME SCRIPTURES ABOUT THE KHALAFAH (CALIPHATE) AND LEADERSHIP (EMARAH)
ISSUE OF SUCCESSION AND THE CIVIL STRIFE BETWEEN THE COMPANIONS AFTER THE MURDER OF THE THIRD CALIPH, UTHMAN, MAY ALLAH BE PLEASED WITH HIM
SUPREME IMPORTANCE OF RIGHT GUIDANCE AND JUSTICE
BENEFITS OF CALIPHATE, AND THE DEFECTS OF ITS DECLINE AND DISINTEGRATION INTO SMALL WEAK STATES
QUESTION: WHY DID NOT THE MUSLIMS REVOLT AGAINST THE UNJUST OPPRESSIVE LEADER
VICTORY IS ONLY FOR THE BELIEVERS AND FAITHFUL MUSLIMS, EVEN IF IT MAY BE DELAYED
IDENTITY OF THE FUTURE CALIPHATE
ABOUT MILITANT so called “JIHADISM”
CONCLUSION

Forth coming (insha-Allah: God willing)

Excerpt from pages 5-36

(Scroll down to bottom of page for footnotes)


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بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين والصلاة والسلام  على رسوله المصطفى الأمين

وآ له وصحبه ومن أتبعهم بإحسان إلى يوم الدين

In the name of Allah Most Beneficent Most Merciful

All praise is for Allah the Exalted and may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon His Messenger Muhammad and his family and companions and all those who follow them and their way until the Day of Resurrection

Introduction

In an October 6, 2005 speech at the National Endowment for Democracy, a Washington-based think-tank, US President GW Bush said: “The militants believe that controlling one country will rally the Muslim masses, enabling them to overthrow all moderate governments in the region and establish a radical Islamic empire that expands from Spain to Indonesia.”   He also said that: “…the murderous ideology of the Islamic radicals is the great challenge of our new century…” he added that it is “mortal danger to all humanity…” He compared the battles against it to the battles against Hitler, Stalin and Pol Pot, and against fascism, communism and the notorious killing fields.  He said that a defeat in Iraq would be disastrous for the US because “,,, the terrorists would be able to advance their stated agenda: to develop weapons of mass destruction, to destroy Israel, to intimidate Europe, to assault the American people and to blackmail our Government into isolation.” He also said that Islamic radicalism like communism “contains inherent contradictions that doom it to failure.” Neo-conservative circles were greatly pleased by this speech and considered it a watershed in the war on terror since he identified the enemy in ideological terms as “evil Islamic radicalism…militant jihadism … Islamo-fascism” which is more specific than just terrorists and evil ones, and yet broader that the nebulous group called ‘al-Qaidah.’

In a speech delivered on 5/9/06 at the Capital Hilton Hotel, Washington DC, he referred to the Islamic Caliphate as a ‘totalitarian Islamic empire,’ and said: “They hope to establish a violent political utopia across the Middle East, which they call a ‘Caliphate’ – where all would be ruled according to their hateful ideology.”

The US Secretary of Defense, Donald Rumsfeld, said on the 4th of February 2006 that U.S. allies should increase military spending to thwart the creation of a “global extremist Islamic empire.” [1] He also said: “Iraq would serve as the base of a new Islamic caliphate to extend throughout the Middle East and which would threaten the legitimate governments in Europe, Africa, and Asia. This is their plan. They have said so. We make a terrible mistake if we fail to listen and learn.” [2]

These speeches and those along similar lines were widely reported and analyzed. Newsweek ran an article entitled with: Kaliwho? And with the subtitle: Bush’s favorite new word “Caliphate”: Why is President Bush talking about an Islamic caliphate? And what does the word mean?[3]

Tom Porteous notes the absurdity of USA rhetoric and policies which alienates many mainstream Muslims, a point mentioned by other analysts and reporters, when he said in “The Caliphate Myth”: “…so far from being seen as a totalitarian tyranny, the early Muslim caliphate is highly venerated by most Muslims as a golden age of Islam. Comparing it to the Third Reich is therefore not a good way of winning friends and influencing people in the Muslim world….”[4]

A 1/14/2006 Washington Post article by Karl Vick entitled “Reunified Islam: Unlikely but Not Entirely Radical,” with the subtitle “Restoration of Caliphate, Attacked by Bush, Resonates With Mainstream Muslims” cited the words of many “moderate” and “ordinary” Muslims in the very secular nation of Turkey to prove it main points.

Although USA President Barak Obama has been more deferential to Muslims sensitivities than others and has even come under suspicion for the Muslim connection with his father’s homeland of Kenya, many of the established USA policies have continued unabated albeit under new directives or have even been enhanced and upgraded. As a precedential candidate his defense positions were, as one commentator said, “proposing a geopolitical posture that is more aggressive than that of President Bush.” [5] As President he has made eradicating the Taliban and Al-Qaida and winning the struggle in Afghanistan (which includes Pakistan by the way) the centerpiece of his administration’s terrorism policy and the top foreign policy initiative, while also perusing policies for “winning the hearts and minds” of the Muslims. His overtures in Turkey, Egypt and other places have been to the so called “moderate” Muslims and clearly whose inclinations are along the lines of establishing in the Muslim world an accepted form of democracy clearly meaning open, liberal, and western allied. Without doubt the first credentials of such a state are their determination politically and/or physically to eliminate all “extremists” who desire enforcing Islamic law and Islamic Caliphate. It certainly was his idea before the presidency when in August 2007 he said as Senator that terrorists “seek to create a repressive caliphate… To defeat this enemy, we must understand who we are fighting against, and what we are fighting for.” [6] And yet in his Cairo speech he spoke of the Caliphate in glowing terms when he cited the Caliphate of Andalusia and Cordoba as an example of tolerance [as if this is the only standard of legitimacy]. And in keeping up with a history of sweet rhetoric the ‘War on Terrorism’ is now called euphemistically the “Global Contingency Operation,” as if changing a name will change ground realities. REASSESS

In the July 2005 “evil ideology” speech, former British PM Tony Blair said “they demand the elimination of Israel; the withdrawal of all Westerners from Muslim countries, irrespective of the wishes of people and government; the establishment of effectively Taleban states and Sharia law in the Arab world en route to one caliphate of all Muslim nations.” [7]

In conservative blogs we find repeatedly the association of Caliphate with evil, for as one said ‘Khilafah: the new Evil Empire’. “The adherents of the ideology seek to create a worldwide totalitarian super-state which they call Khilafah. Because of this, I think it is proper to call the ideology Khilafism, and an adherent of the ideology either a Khilafi or a Khilafist.” To which a commenter said: “The problem with the Caliphate is OIL. They simply would have too much of it!”[8]

And another commented, “It is wrong also to assume that the idea of Caliphate leads to terrorism: Jihad and Caliphate are different aspects of Islamic Fundamentalism. To Caliphate supporters, unifying Muslims under a flag is no different from unifying, say, Ireland. Wanting the latter does not make you an IRA terrorist. Nor implies you want to make an Irishman out of everyone else on the planet (not that it can be done!)Caliphate supporters, as well as other strains of Islamic Fundamentalists draw upon the lack of credible political systems in their countries of origin. Democracy as they know it is a series of rigged elections and corrupt elites supported by the US and its allies, and impoverished, ignorant populations sitting on huge natural riches, the proceeds of which go to (you guessed it) the corrupt elites and Western companies. The problem with the Caliphate is OIL. They simply would have too much of it!” [9]

Andrew G. Bostom writes in “The Muslim Mainstream and the New Caliphate” [April 27, 2007]: “The openly expressed desire for the restoration of a Caliphate from two-thirds of an important Muslim sample of Arab and non-Arab Islamic nations, representative of Muslims worldwide, should serve as a chilling wake-up call to those still in denial about the existential threat posed by the living, uniquely Islamic institution of jihad.” [10]

He is citing a World Public Opinion poll from the University of Maryland, released earlier and then updated on February 25, 2009, which indicated that 81% of the Muslims of “moderate” Egypt, the largest Arab Muslim nation, and 76% of the Muslims in Pakistan, one of the most important non Arab Muslim countries, desire a “strict” application of Shari’a Islamic Law. Moreover, 70% of Egyptian Muslims and 69% of Pakistani Muslims desire the re-creation of a “single Islamic state or Caliphate.” [11]

John Brennan, the assistant to the president Obama for homeland security and counterterrorism, said in an August 2009 speech: “We are at war with its violent extremist allies who seek to carry on al-Qaida’s murderous agenda.” He described that agenda as seeking “to replace sovereign nations with a global caliphate.” Frank J. Gaffney Jr., president of the Center for Security Policy, said in an urgent tone calling on various agencies to step up regulation of Muslims in the US, and lauding the efforts of Rep. Sue Myrick of North Carolina: “Unfortunately, that is the stated goal of all those who adhere to what authoritative Islam calls Shariah — a number that includes many millions of people the world over….” He then warned against what has been called: “’stealth’ jihad: Shariah-compliant finance”. [12]

It is noteworthy that in surveys conducted by in Egypt, Morocco, Pakistan, and Indonesia conducted from December 2006 to February, 2007 by World Public Opinion.org with support from the START Consortium at the University of Maryland, this study found that two-thirds of the Muslims surveyed would like to “unify all Islamic counties into a single Islamic state or caliphate.”[13]

In this paper I do not want to deal with all the implications of various speeches and related policies but will focus on the reference to Caliphate. I intend to show that the hope for the return of the Islamic Caliphate (Khilafah) is not a sort of irrational fantasy of fringe extremists, obscure fanatics and “terrorists” among the Muslims, but the lasting legacy of the political and community heritage of Islam of which all mainstream Muslims are extremely proud. The Caliphate is for the faithful the historical legacy of an ideal and just Islamic rule. It represents an epitome of moral and administrative excellence in the classical era of Islamic purity. It therefore remains a realistic goal towards which they strive to make a reality while struggling to uphold the truth and justice as revealed by Allah. The fact that the entire Muslim world has not been under the leadership of a rightly guided leader as a Khaleefa (Caliph) for some time doesn’t mean that it is impossible. Nor does the fact that despotic rulers have lead the masses away from Islamic rule.  If this now seems a distant messianic goal, at least faithful Muslims yearn to be ruled according to Islamic principles and laws of justice and not tyrannical self-serving or foreign man made laws. Even that faith and yearning in their hearts is a step towards Caliphate.   The fact that there are seemingly insurmountable conflicts and divisions between the Muslims doesn’t mean that they cannot develop institutions and organizations serving the causes of Islamic unity and community welfare and which strive to identify and give unified statements and actions about issues and problems of mutual concern. Not long ago Europe was mired in apparently insurmountable divisions and hatreds and was wracked by catastrophic world wars. Not long ago any talk about a European Union was mere idyllic idealism and scoffed at as fantasy but today it is a reality, however it may be.  Not long ago the state of Israel was a seemingly far-fetched dream but now it is a reality however it may be. Indeed whatever form a genuine Muslim unity takes it will be in the eyes of its enemies a kind of “radical Islamic Empire,” for indeed anything new in indeed radical compared to the old.

To put the hope for Caliphate in some perspective, the reign of King David and his son Solomon peace be upon them, are considered the epitome of just rule by the commands of Judaic Law of united Israel, a fact to which both practicing Jews and Muslim agree. Observant Jews aspire to the return this kind of just rule by Mosaic Law and see secular Israel as an abomination and aberration. Many Christians aspire to the second coming of Jesus and say that the following texts of the Bible point to this, like the Old Testament text from Daniel: “7: 13 I saw in the night visions, and, behold, one like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days, and they brought him near before him. 14And there was given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all people, nations, and languages, should serve him: his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed.” [KJV Daniel 7: 13-14] And in the New Testament this second coming is described as follows: “11And I saw heaven opened, and behold a white horse; and he that sat upon him was called Faithful and True, and in righteousness he doth judge and make war. 12 His eyes were as a flame of fire,  ….. and his name is called The Word of God. 14And the armies which were in heaven followed him upon white horses, clothed in fine linen, white and clean. 15And out of his mouth goeth a sharp sword, that with it he should smite the nations: and he shall rule them with a rod of iron: and he treadeth the winepress of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God. 16And he hath on his vesture and on his thigh a name written, KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS.” [KJV Relations 19: 11-16]  Much more can be mentioned here and these quotes are cited merely to point to the volumes of Jewish and Christian inspirational literature on the subject proving that it is not only fringe elements among them that seek a reign of righteousness and rule by religious law.

From a more secular viewpoint, the 20th century witnessed the decline of imperial European empires along with the rise and defeat of fascist empires, and then the tussle of cold war era between world dominating Russian communism and American capitalism. Possibly no other century in human history saw such scale of devastating wars and mass destruction The hubris of the unchallenged “New American” Century and Empire and the great rewards of globalism in the latter part of the 20th century after the collapse of the Berlin Wall, and the early part of the 21st century, was based on a uncritical faith in the merits of liberal democracy and neo liberal global corporate capitalism.

The ostensive objective for waging a non-ending global war on terrorism after 9/11/2001 is to eradicate “terror,” but in reality is boiling down to confronting any challenge to the American hegemony to be the enforcer of peace and security as the benevolent empire for a kind of PAX AMERICANA. Given this background, any statements that portrays the idea of the Islamic Caliphate being “evil,” and likened to fascism, communism and the killing fields, only further alienates the Muslim masses and many others who see the invasion and interventions of Afghanistan, Iraq, Palestine, Lebanon and Somalia, and threats to others, as part of the larger game plan of American imperialism.  The fact that there seems to be less concern for the consequences of the civilian in harm’s way, and more concern to protect designated strategic interests by unilaterally controlling the rapidly depleting vital resources and the crucial trade routes, all which happen to lie in the heartlands of the increasingly uncooperative Muslin world, only adds fuel to the fire.

[some parts of introduction deleted]

….

Abu Salman Deya-ud-Deen Eberle

abusalman102@gmail.com <> abusalman102@yahoo.com


Meaning of Khaleefah and Khilafah

The three-letter Arabic root (خلف) KH-L-F has many meaning, one of which indicates making one a successor after another, to give reign of power and ascendancy after a proceeding ruler or group’s reign, and all the responsibilities associated with power.  The word ‘Caliph’ is used in English in lieu of Arabic word Khaleefah [singular (خليفة), plural Khulafa`a (خلفاء)], which means the leader and ruler coming one after another, and following the preceding lead. A Khaleefah is sometimes called a vicegerent and deputy of a higher authority, executing the higher authority’s commands that are also his commands by loyal allegiance to that higher authority. This is one of the interpretations given for the Prophet and father of mankind Adam, peace be upon him, and for the Prophet Da`ud (David), may Allah’s peace be upon him, both of whom are called a Khaleefah, in the sense that they represent the execution of the law and rule of Allah the Exalted Almighty God of all creation, on their limited domain on themselves and on earth.

Allah the Exalted said:

﴿﴾وَإِذْ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ إِنِّي جَاعِلٌ فِي الْأَرْضِ خَلِيفَةً قَالُوا أَتَجْعَلُ فِيهَا مَنْ يُفْسِدُ فِيهَا وَيَسْفِكُ الدِّمَاءَ وَنَحْنُ نُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدِكَ وَنُقَدِّسُ لَكَ قَالَ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ ﴿﴾

“And when your Lord said to the angels, ‘Indeed, I will make upon the earth a Caliph,’ they said, ‘Will You place upon it one who causes corruption therein and sheds blood even though we glorify You and sanctify You?”  He said, ‘Indeed I know that which you do not know.’ (2:30) There are two sayings of the companions and the commentators about the word Caliph “Khaleefah” here in this verse.  One saying is that he is a “Vicegerent” in the sense that Allah designated him the duty to observe and to establish Allah’s laws.  The other saying is that he is a “Successor” of those proceeding, and thus man is succeeding generations of those proceeding, each generation following the other. [14]

Allah the Almighty and Majestic said:

﴿﴾يَا دَاوُودُ إِنَّا جَعَلْنَاكَ خَلِيفَةً فِي الأَرْضِ فَاحْكُم بَيْنَ النَّاسِ بِالْحَقِّ وَلا تَتَّبِعِ الْهَوَى فَيُضِلَّكَ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَضِلُّونَ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ شَدِيدٌ بِمَا نَسُوا يَوْمَ الْحِسَابِ﴿﴾

“O David, indeed We have made you a vicegerent (or successor) upon the earth so judge between the people in truth and do not follow desires as it will lead you astray from the way of Allah.” Indeed those who go astray from the way of Allah will have a severe punishment for having forgotten the Day of Accounting.” (38:26)

There are explicit narrations of the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessing be upon him, declared authentic by the scholars of the sciences of prophetic narrations, that mention the Muslim ruler and leader as “Khaleefat-Allah.” (خليفة الله), and they will be mentioned below.  The companion Abu Bakr may Allah’s pleasure be upon him, the first Caliph of the Muslim nation, was called Khaleefat-Rasul-lah (خليفة رسول الله) since he was the first successor of the Prophet of Allah Muhammad peace and blessings be upon him, and since he faithfully followed his leadership for the benefit of the Muslims.  The Islamic system of rule and government is called Khalaafa (خلافة) or known in English as the Caliphate, meaning that the Muslim ruler rules after the rule of the Prophet Muhammad peace and blessing be upon him, and executes the Islamic laws as in the scriptures of the Quran and the Sunnah, the Quran being the revealed book of Allah and the Sunnah being the ways and teachings of the Prophet which comprehensively explains and applies the law in all aspects of everyday life.

Of course Allah the Exalted has many Beautiful Perfect Names and Exalted Attributes and many of them that revolve around the meanings that in His dominion of all creation He is the Absolute Sovereign, Ruler, Owner, Master and King and Lawgiver. Allah is Al-Malik (الملك) The King, The Sovereign; Al-Maalik (المالك) The Owner, Master; Al-Maleek (المليك) The Owner, Master; Maalik al Mulk (مالك الملك) The Owner of All Sovereignty; Al-‘Azeez (العزيز) The Almighty, Mighty; Al-Jabbar (الجبار) The Compeller, the Irresistible; Al-Mutakabbir (المتكبر) The Majestic in His Greatness, Supreme; Al-Kabeer (الكبير) The Great; Al-Hakam (الحكم) The Judge, The Ruler, The Legislator; Al-Qadeer (القدير) The Capable, the Able; Al-Muqtadir (المقتدر) The All Determiner, Dominant; Al Qadir (القادر) The All Able; Al-Qahhar (القهار) The All Compelling, the Conqueror, Subduer; Al-Qahir (القاهر) The Dominant, Irresistible; Al-Qawiy (القوى) The Most Powerful, Strong; Al-Mateen (المتين) The Firm, Strong, Steadfast; Al-Haiy (الحي) The Eternally Living; Al-Qayyum (القيوم) The Self Subsisting, Sustainer of All; Al-‘Ali (العلى) The ‏Most High and Exalted; Al-A’ala (الأعلى) The Most High; Al-Muta’al (المتعالي) The Self-Exalted; Al-‘Aztheem (العظيم) The Most Magnificent, Greatest, the Infinite; Al-Fattah (الفتّاح) The Opener, Granter of Victory.

Other names describe more of the perfect Attributes of Allah, yet possibly these above will suffice here to prove convincingly that a Muslim never thinks of himself as the ultimate authority and the absolute ruler and lawgiver, a tendency common of the despots and tyrants of old and of today. Modern humanistic philosophy teaches that man controls his own destiny and he himself rules by himself for himself, and that he is “free” to implement the policies he sees are best.  This is the common denominator between the democratic, the socialistic and the communistic and the despotic systems of the twentieth and twenty first century CE which agree on a secular agenda that demotes or totally eliminates religion from public life and government, or from all life altogether, even personal faith and morality.

And in the narration of the supplication of traveling:

اللَّهُمَّ أَنْتَ الصَّاحِبُ فِي السَّفَرِ وَالْخَلِيفَةُ فِي الْأَهْلِ…

“…Oh Allah you are the companion in traveling and the “Khaleefah fil-Ahl” (the one I leave to protect the family)….” [15]

And in a long narration about the ad-Dajjal (Anti-Christ), we find the statement of the Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him:

غير الدجال أخوفني عليكم إن يخرج وأنا فيكم فأنا حجيجه دونكم وإن يخرج ولست فيكم

فامرؤ حجيج نفسه والله خليفتي على كل مسلم

“It is not the Dajjal that I fear for you so much, since if he appears while I am among you I will be your advocate protecting you, and if he appears  and I am not among you then each person must be his own advocate (protecting himself), and Allah is my ‘Khaleefa’ protecting over every Muslim…”  [16]

And in a famous narration of prophetic advice, peace and blessing be upon him:

إِنِّي قَدْ تَرَكْتُ فِيكُمْ خَلِيفَتَيْنِ كِتَابَ اللَّهِ وَأَهْلَ بَيْتِي وَإِنَّهُمَا لَمْ يَفْتَرِقَا حَتَّى يَرِدَا عَلَيَّ الْحَوْضَ

“I have left among you two legacies (Khaleefatain): The Book of Allah and my household; they will not separate from one another until the come to my reservoir (Haud).”  [17]

For a Muslim this is the highest sacrilege and the ultimate rebellion, infidelity and blasphemy since man is always by innate nature an “Abd” (عبد) slave and servant of Allah. Thus man is “Abdullah” (عبدالله), and collectively all men are called “Abeed-Allah” (عبيدالله) and also “Ibad-Allah” (عبادالله) meaning the slaves and servants of Allah. This includes all men as creatures of Allah, no matter whether he is obedient and faithful or he is disobedient and an infidel. Allah is the ultimate Ruler, Master and the Lawgiver, may He be Exalted and Glorified high above the debased estimations of mankind. The most any person can do is to rule within a limited domain and sphere that Allah allows and delegates to him, as an honor and as a test and responsibility. He may be an obedient and faithful Muslim to Allah’s laws He may be a disobedient Muslim about those laws who nevertheless in spite of his own personal disobedience recognizes the legitimacy and authority of Allah’s laws. Anyone who denies the laws of Allah and Allah’s ultimate right to rule and have authority over His creation is a disbeliever. Thus those who abrogate Allah’s laws and usurp their sanctity and execution in order to place in authority their own man made laws, no matter how wise and just they claim these new laws to be, no matter that the new laws have received a majority vote and a consensus of legitimacy among the people, has rebelled against Allah in idolatry by taking for himself the laws

Allah the Great and Majestic said:

﴿﴾قُلِ اللَّهُمَّ مَالِكَ الْمُلْكِ تُؤْتِي الْمُلْكَ مَنْ تَشَاءُ وَتَنْزِعُ الْمُلْكَ مِمَّنْ تَشَاءُ وَتُعِزُّ مَنْ تَشَاءُ وَتُذِلُّ مَنْ تَشَاءُ بِيَدِكَ الْخَيْرُ إِنَّكَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ ﴿﴾

“Say, ‘O Allah, Owner of all Sovereignty, You give the sovereignty to whom You will and You take the sovereignty away from whom You will.  You honor whom You will, and You humble whom You will.  In Your hand is all good.  Indeed, You are Capable over all things.’” (3: 26)

And Allah the Almighty and Majestic said:

﴿﴾ وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مِنْكُمْ وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ لَيَسْتَخْلِفَنَّهُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ كَمَا اسْتَخْلَفَ الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ وَلَيُمَكِّنَنَّ لَهُمْ دِينَهُمُ الَّذِي ارْتَضَى لَهُمْ وَلَيُبَدِّلَنَّهُمْ مِنْ بَعْدِ خَوْفِهِمْ أَمْناً يَعْبُدُونَنِي لا يُشْرِكُونَ بِي شَيْئاً ﴿﴾

“Allah has promised those who believe among you and have done righteous deeds that He will surely grant them succession (and ascendancy) upon the earth just as He granted it to those before them. He will surely establish their religion that He has chosen for them, and will surely substitute for them security after their fear, for the reason that they worship Me and do not associate anything with Me. But whoever disbelieved after that, those indeed are the defiantly disobedient.”  (24:55)

The word astakhlafa (استخلف) here is from the root KH-L-F as mentioned above, and we find the same word in the coming prophetic narration in a more political sense when the Messenger of Allah said, may the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him:

مَا بَعَثَ اللَّهُ مِنْ نَبِيٍّ وَلَا اسْتَخْلَفَ مِنْ خَلِيفَةٍ إِلَّا كَانَتْ لَهُ بِطَانَتَانِ بِطَانَةٌ تَأْمُرُهُ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَتَحُضُّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَبِطَانَةٌ تَأْمُرُهُ بِالشَّرِّ وَتَحُضُّهُ عَلَيْهِ فَالْمَعْصُومُ مَنْ عَصَمَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى

“Allah did not send any Prophet or make to be as successor any Caliph, except that there were two groups of close advisers: one commands him with known good and encourages him to perform it, and the other commands him to evil and encourages him to perform it, and the protected one is he whom Allah the Exalted protects.” [18]

And in another narration the word is used in a more general sense when he said:

إِنَّ الدُّنْيَا حُلْوَةٌ خَضِرَةٌ  وَإِنَّ اللهَ مُسْتَخِلَفُكُمْ فِيهَا، فَنَاظِر مَا تَعْمَلُونَ  فَاتَّقُوا الدُّنْيَا وَاتَّقُوا النِّسَاءَ

فَإِنَّ أَوَّلَ فِتْنَةِ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ كَانَتْ فِي النِّسَاءِ

Verily the life of this world is sweet and (radiant) green, and Allah will make you to be successors in it to see how you will behave: so fear (the temptations) of the life of this world, and fear (the temptations) of women for indeed the first trial of the sons of Israel was in (the temptations) of women.” [19]

And Allah the Exalted said in command to the believers:

﴿﴾يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ أَطِيعُواْ اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ الرَّسُولَ وَأُوْلِي الأَمْرِ مِنكُمْ فَإِن تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ

فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ إِن كُنتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ ذَلِكَ خَيْرٌ وَأَحْسَنُ تَأْوِيلاً﴿﴾

“O you who believe obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you.  And if you disagree over anything, refer it back to Allah and the Messenger, if you do indeed believe in Allah and the Last Day, that is the best way and the best in result.”   (4:59) “Those in authority among you” are to be obeyed only when they command obedience to Allah for as the narration of the Prophet states:

Allah the Exalted said:

﴿﴾ وَلَيَنْصُرَنَّ اللَّهُ مَنْ يَنْصُرُهُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَقَوِيٌّ عَزِيزٌ * الَّذِينَ إِنْ مَكَّنَّاهُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ أَقَامُوا الصَّلاةَ

وَآتَوُا الزَّكَاةَ وَأَمَرُوا بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَنَهَوْا عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ وَلِلَّهِ عَاقِبَةُ الْأُمُورِ﴿﴾

“Verily Allah helps and gives victory to those who help and give victory to Him. Indeed Allah is Strong, Almighty. Those, whom if We give power in the land, establish Salah (prayer), give Zakah (charity), and enjoin virtue and forbid evil. And with Allah is the outcome of events.” [22: 40-41]

Some Scriptures about the Khalafah (Caliphate), Leadership (Emarah) and Sultan (Authority)

The Prophet Muhammad peace and blessings be upon him, gave his nation and community of followers (Ummah) the glad tidings of the firm establishment of the Islamic Caliphate and Kingdom and that it would spread over a vast area. He also gave them warnings and predicted that the Muslim Ummah would be inflicted with many trials, tribulations and even strife and civil wars. He prophesized the coming of rightly guided leaders, of those less rightly guided, and of those who would clearly deviate and lead many of the gullible astray. The events and trends foretold in these prophesies contain some of the most amazing proofs that he is indeed the Prophet and Messenger of God Almighty, Allah the Omnificent and Most Majestic, may the salutations, praises, prayers, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him and his family and companions and those that follow their way. In the latter days the just Caliphate rule will return after its lapse and will be a portent of the Day of Resurrection. The total compilation of the various narrations on this meaning make the basic outlines about Caliphate an undeniable tenet of faith.

Muslims believe that the best government after the Prophet’s model government, peace and blessings be upon him, was the rule of his companions after him, the rightly guided leaders called al-Khulafa`a ar-Rasideen (rightly guided Caliphs).  The companion al-Irbaad ibn Sariyah may Allah be pleased with him, said:

قَامَ فِينَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ذَاتَ يَوْمٍ فَوَعَظَنَا مَوْعِظَةً بَلِيغَةً وَجِلَتْ مِنْهَا الْقُلُوبُ وَذَرَفَتْ مِنْهَا الْعُيُونُ فَقِيلَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ وَعَظْتَنَا مَوْعِظَةَ مُوَدِّعٍ فَاعْهَدْ إِلَيْنَا بِعَهْدٍ فَقَالَ عَلَيْكُمْ بِتَقْوَى اللَّهِ وَالسَّمْعِ وَالطَّاعَةِ وَإِنْ عَبْدًا حَبَشِيًّا وَسَتَرَوْنَ مِنْ بَعْدِي اخْتِلَافًا شَدِيدًا فَعَلَيْكُمْ بِسُنَّتِي وَسُنَّةِ الْخُلَفَاءِ الرَّاشِدِينَ الْمَهْدِيِّينَ عَضُّوا عَلَيْهَا بِالنَّوَاجِذِ وَإِيَّاكُمْ وَالْأُمُورَ الْمُحْدَثَاتِ

فَإِنَّ كُلَّ بِدْعَةٍ ضَلَالَةٌ

“The Messenger, peace and blessing be upon him, stood and gave us an eloquent sermon by which our hearts fluttered and tears flowed from our eyes, so we said to him, ‘O Messenger of Allah as if this is the final sermon so give us a final instruction.’ He said: “I instruct you to fear Allah and hearing and obeying even if a slave becomes your leader, for indeed whoever among you lives will see much disagreement so adhere to my Sunnah and the Sunnah of the rightly guided, correctly directed Caliphs, adhering to it with the firm bite of your molar teeth, and beware of the invented affairs since every Bid’ah is misguidance.” [20] And in another account of the narration he said, as al-Urbad ibn Sariyah reported:

وَعَظَنَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مَوْعِظَةً ذَرَفَتْ مِنْهَا الْعُيُونُ وَوَجِلَتْ مِنْهَا الْقُلُوبُ فَقُلْنَا يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنَّ هَذِهِ لَمَوْعِظَةُ مُوَدِّعٍ فَمَاذَا تَعْهَدُ إِلَيْنَا قَالَ قَدْ تَرَكْتُكُمْ عَلَى الْبَيْضَاءِ لَيْلُهَا كَنَهَارِهَا لَا يَزِيغُ عَنْهَا بَعْدِي إِلَّا هَالِكٌ مَنْ يَعِشْ مِنْكُمْ فَسَيَرَى اخْتِلَافًا كَثِيرًا فَعَلَيْكُمْ بِمَا عَرَفْتُمْ مِنْ سُنَّتِي وَسُنَّةِ الْخُلَفَاءِ الرَّاشِدِينَ الْمَهْدِيِّينَ عَضُّوا عَلَيْهَا بِالنَّوَاجِذِ وَعَلَيْكُمْ بِالطَّاعَةِ

وَإِنْ عَبْدًا حَبَشِيًّا فَإِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُ كَالْجَمَلِ الْأَنِفِ حَيْثُمَا قِيدَ انْقَادَ

“The Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s peace and blessing be upon him, gave us an admonition which caused the eyes to shed tears and the hearts to tremble in fear, so we said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, as if this is a farewell sermon, so with what do you counsel us?’ He said: ‘I have left you upon clear proof: its night is like its day; no one deviates from it except the one who is destroyed.   Whoever lives long from among you will see great controversy. So adhere to what you know from my Sunnah and the Sunnah of the rightly guided Caliphs, and cling to that with your molar teeth, and adhere to obedience even if it is to (obey) an Abyssinian slave.  Since verily the believer is like a submissive camel:  wherever it is led, it follows.”

These narrations command us to follow the ways of the rightly guided Caliphs. The consensus of the Muslims, meaning of those who are worthy to consider of the People of the Prophet’s Way (Sunnah), is that these are Caliphs are Abu Bakr, then Umar ibn al-Khattab, then Uthman ibn Affan and then Ali ibn Abi Talib, may Allah be pleased with all of them. After this Hasan ibn Ali was chosen by his group after his father but he abdicated – in order to unify the Muslims under one ruler and terminate the civil war – for the reign of Mu’awiyah ibn Abi Sufyan, the leader of the opposing and contending group may Allah be pleased with them all the companions and forgive them their mistakes. Subsequently Mu’awiyah founded the Umayyad Dynasty by taking the people’s pledge of allegiance for his son Yazeed while he himself was still alive, and upon this method began the period of kingdom after Caliphate. Although a kingdom is not as praiseworthy as a Caliphate it is not completely illegitimate or reviled as proven by the Prophetic narrations some of which are mentioned below, and in spite of the malicious propaganda of a variety of the deviated sects. It is not praiseworthy for abandoning the method of the Caliphate, yet it remains praiseworthy to the extent that the leader rules justly according to the Islamic laws and principles of government. The companion Mu’awiyah himself, may Allah be pleased with him, was laudable in some respects and less so in some other aspects. This is also true of others of the Ummayid rulers. The same can be said of various leaders of the Abbasids and those after them.  Umar Abdul Aziz al-Umayyid, who is called sometimes the fifth rightly guided Caliph, was exceptional in his piety and justice.  Cases of clear injustice and deviation were rebuked by the scholars of the time, and this remains the obligation of the scholars. Allah has promised that there will never cease to be among the Muslims a Ta`ifah Mansurah” (victorious group) of Muslims even thought others may abandon and oppose them, and a Firqah an-Najiyah” (saved sect) among many who deviate, and a group of pious “Ghuruba`a” (strangers and alienated) who remain straight when the majority are crooked and corrupt.  Near the last hour the Mahdi will appear and Jesus son of Mariyam will descend as prophesized in authentic narrations. The Mahdi and Jesus are definitely of the highest degree of those that are righteous and rightly guided.  Before their arrival injustice will predominate and they will lead the Muslims to overcome this injustice and re-install the just Caliphate. Any Muslim who denies authentically reported and verified prophetic narrations, especially when the pathways are so numerous to make them undeniable, and when the scholars of the sciences of prophetic narrations have agreed upon their authenticity, is misguided and deviant. Below are a few of the scriptural proofs for these claims.

Hudthaifah ibn al-Yaman, may Allah be pleased with him, reported that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

تَكُونُ النُّبُوَّةُ فِيكُمْ مَا شَاءَ اللَّهُ أَنْ تَكُونَ ثُمَّ يَرْفَعُهَا إِذَا شَاءَ أَنْ يَرْفَعَهَا ثُمَّ تَكُونُ خِلَافَةٌ عَلَى مِنْهَاجِ النُّبُوَّةِ فَتَكُونُ مَا شَاءَ اللَّهُ أَنْ تَكُونَ ثُمَّ يَرْفَعُهَا إِذَا شَاءَ اللَّهُ أَنْ يَرْفَعَهَا ثُمَّ تَكُونُ مُلْكًا عَاضًّا فَيَكُونُ مَا شَاءَ اللَّهُ أَنْ يَكُونَ ثُمَّ يَرْفَعُهَا إِذَا شَاءَ أَنْ يَرْفَعَهَا ثُمَّ تَكُونُ مُلْكًا جَبْرِيَّةً فَتَكُونُ مَا شَاءَ اللَّهُ أَنْ تَكُونَ ثُمَّ يَرْفَعُهَا إِذَا شَاءَ أَنْ يَرْفَعَهَا

ثُمَّ تَكُونُ خِلَافَةً عَلَى مِنْهَاجِ النُّبُوَّةِ ثُمَّ سَكَتَ

“Prophethood will remain with you for as long as Allah wills it to remain, then He will lift it if He decided to lift it. Then there will be a Caliphate following the way of Prophethood remaining with you for as long as Allah wills it to remain. Then He will lift it if He decided to lift it. Afterwards, there will be strongly held monarchy and it will remain with you for as long as Allah wills it to remain. Then He will lift it if He decided to lift it. Then there will be a reign of tyrannical rule and it will remain for as long as Allah wills it to remain. Then Allah will lift it if He decided to lift it. Then there will be a Caliphate following the way of Prophethood.” Then he stopped speaking.”[21]

This narration is significant in that it prophesized the exact sequence that has taken place in Islamic history and gives the glad tidings for the eventual return of Caliphate.  Here we have four terms of four political systems: “Prophethood” (النبوة), Caliphate following the way of Prophethood (خلافة على منهاج النبوة), strongly held monarchy (ملكاً عاضاً), and tyrannical rule ملكاً جبرياً)). Of course no one after the Prophet himself can aspire to “Prophethood.”  In western terminology a theocracy means the rule of God.  We Muslims say this is a misnomer since rule is of the Prophets of Allah and those that follow and rule by Allah’s Laws according to His revealed scriptures, and never by God Himself. Every faithful Muslim says that that “Caliphate following the way of Prophethood” was the ideal system after the rule of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him. The fact that “Prophethood” (النبوة) can be a political system is well known from the reign of Da`ud and Sulaiman (David and Solomon) according to the Law of the Torah revealed to Musa (Moses), in its grandeur and magnificence, peace be upon them. And in the authentic tradition the Prophet said, peace and blessing be upon him:

كَانَتْ بَنُو إِسْرَائِيلَ تَسُوسُهُمْ الْأَنْبِيَاءُ كُلَّمَا هَلَكَ نَبِيٌّ خَلَفَهُ نَبِيٌّ وَإِنَّهُ لَا نَبِيَّ بَعْدِي وَسَيَكُونُ خُلَفَاءُ فَيَكْثُرُونَ قَالُوا فَمَا تَأْمُرُنَا قَالَ فُوا بِبَيْعَةِ الْأَوَّلِ فَالْأَوَّلِ أَعْطُوهُمْ حَقَّهُمْ

فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ سَائِلُهُمْ عَمَّا اسْتَرْعَاهُمْ

“The sons of Israel used to be ruled by their Prophets. Every time one died another one came to take his place. As for me there is no prophet after me, and there will be Khulafa`a (Caliphs) and they will be many.” They said, ‘And what do you command us (concerning them)?’ He said: “Fulfill the pledge of allegiance to them as the come one by one. Give them their rights and Allah will ask them about their leadership responsibilities with which He has entrusted them.” [22]

And the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, mentioned this when he said:

إن عِفْرِيتًا مِنْ الْجِنِّ تَفَلَّتَ عَلَيَّ الْبَارِحَةَ أَوْ كَلِمَةً نَحْوَهَا لِيَقْطَعَ عَلَيَّ الصَّلَاةَ فَأَمْكَنَنِي اللَّهُ مِنْهُ فَأَرَدْتُ أَنْ أَرْبِطَهُ إِلَى سَارِيَةٍ مِنْ سَوَارِي الْمَسْجِدِ حَتَّى تُصْبِحُوا وَتَنْظُرُوا إِلَيْهِ كُلُّكُمْ فَذَكَرْتُ قَوْلَ

قَالَ رَوْحٌ فَرَدَّهُ خَاسِئًا { هَبْ لِي مُلْكًا لَا يَنْبَغِي لِأَحَدٍ مِنْ بَعْدِي رَبِّ } أَخِي سُلَيْمَانَ

“Last night a big demon (Afreet) from the Jinn came to me and wanted to interrupt my prayer but Allah enabled me to overpower him. I wanted to fasten him to one of the pillars of the mosque so that all of you could see him in the morning but I remembered the statement of my brother Solomon (as stated in Quran): “My Lord, forgive me and bestow on me a kingdom such as shall not belong to anybody after me’ (38.35). The sub narrator Rauh said, ‘Allah repelled him (the demon) in humiliation.’ The supplication to Allah made by Solomon the Prophet of Allah and the just and mighty King, is mentioned in the verse of Allah’s Book which says:

﴿﴾ قَالَ رَبِّ اغْفِرْ لِي وَهَبْ لِي مُلْكًا لَا يَنْبَغِي لِأَحَدٍ مِنْ بَعْدِي إِنَّكَ أَنْتَ الْوَهَّابُ ﴿﴾

“He said, ‘My Lord, forgive me and grant me a kingdom such as will not belong to anyone after me. Indeed, You are the Bestower.’” (38:35) Allah accepted his supplication. No king after him has the command of the winds and the jinn and had the splendor in the praise and glorification of Allah like his kingdom.

The exact period of time of the Islamic Caliphate that followed the way of Prophethood (خلافة على منهاج النبوة) has amazingly been foretold by the narration of Safeenah, may Allah be pleased with him, when he narrated that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

خِلَافَةُ النُّبُوَّةِ ثَلَاثُونَ سَنَةً ثُمَّ يُؤْتِي اللَّهُ الْمُلْكَ أَوْ مُلْكَهُ مَنْ يَشَاءُ

“The Caliphate of Prophethood will remain for thirty years, then Allah will give the kingdom to whomever He will.” [23] The narrator Safeenah mentioned that the time in sequence was Abu Bakr (2 years), then Umar ibn al-Khattab (10 years), then Uthman ibn Affan (12 years), and then Ali ibn Abi Talib (6 years), may Allah be pleased with all of them. He means roughly and with the addition of Hassan ibn Ali, for some scholars say that the timings are Abu Bakr (2 years, 3 months), then Umar ibn al-Khattab (10 years, 6 months), then Uthman ibn Affan (12 years), and then Ali ibn Abi Talib (4 years, 9 months), for a total of exactly 30 years with the addition of Hasan ibn Ali (6 months) may Allah be pleased with all of them.

And in another narration the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

أَوَّلُ هَذَا الأَمْرِ نُبُوَّةٌ وَرَحْمَةٌ، ثُمَّ يَكُونُ خِلافَةً وَرَحْمَةً، ثُمَّ يَكُونُ مُلْكًا وَرَحْمَةً، ثُمَّ يَتَكادَمُونَ عَلَيْهِ تَكادُمَ الْحُمُرِ، فَعَلَيْكُمْ بِالْجِهَادِ، وَإِنَّ أَفْضَلَ جهادِكُمُ الرِّبَاطُ، وَإِنَّ أَفْضَلَ رباطِكُمْ عَسْقَلانُ

“The beginning of this affair will be Prophethood and mercy, and then it will be Caliphate and mercy, and then it will be Kingship and mercy, and then you will fight over it like wild donkeys (biting each other), so become engaged in Jihad and the best Jihad is guarding the boundaries of the Muslims, and the best (place) of your guarding the boundaries of the Muslims is Asqalan.”  [24]

This narration praises two systems that will come after prophethood. The first is Khilafah (خلافة) Caliphate, and the second Mulk (ملك) Kingdom. Even though the first Dynastic Kingdom of the companion Mu’awiyah ibn Abi Sufyan al-Umawi, the founder of the Umayyad dynasty, was not included in Caliphate and mercy, it definitely was included in Kingship and mercy.  This is undeniably a kind of praise of him and his rule and of any leader that follows in executing the Islamic Law with sincere, just and merciful rule.  Asqalan is the famous city of Palestine on the coast near Gaza. As if this narration indicates engaging the crusader attackers during the era of the Crusades, the Tatar invaders from the East, the Zionist Israeli attackers and usurpers in this modern day era, and the Dajjal al-Akbar (Greater anti-Christ) in the era of the Mahdi and Jesus in his second coming, peace be upon him, for all of these confrontations revolve around Palestine which is part of the land which Allah the Almighty and Majestic blessed and chose for enormous epic events.

The period of ascendancy and powerfulness is also determined by prophecy to be for the period of twelve rulers, and in some narrations for sixty or seventy years. The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, amazingly said, as Jabir ibn Samrah reported may Allah be pleased with him:

سَمِعْتُ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَقُولُ يَكُونُ اثْنَا عَشَرَ أَمِيرًا

فَقَالَ كَلِمَةً لَمْ أَسْمَعْهَا فَقَالَ أَبِي إِنَّهُ قَالَ كُلُّهُمْ مِنْ قُرَيْشٍ

“I heard the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, say, there will be twelve Muslim rulers, – then he said a sentence which I did not hear. My father said that he said, “All of them (those rulers) will be from Quraish.” [25] And in another version:

لَا يَزَالُ الدِّينُ قَائِمًا حَتَّى تَقُومَ السَّاعَةُ أَوْ يَكُونَ عَلَيْكُمْ اثْنَا عَشَرَ خَلِيفَةً كُلُّهُمْ مِنْ قُرَيْشٍ

“This religion will remain established until the Hour of Resurrection for the time of twelve rulers; all of them are from Quraish.” And in another version of the narration he said:

سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَقُولُ لَا يَزَالُ الْإِسْلَامُ عَزِيزًا إِلَى اثْنَيْ عَشَرَ خَلِيفَةً

ثُمَّ قَالَ كَلِمَةً لَمْ أَفْهَمْهَا فَقُلْتُ لِأَبِي مَا قَالَ فَقَالَ كُلُّهُمْ مِنْ قُرَيْشٍ

“I heard the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, say, Islam will remain strong for the time of twelve rulers – then he said a sentence which I did not hear so I asked my father what did he say? So he said, He said, “All of them (those rulers) will be from Quraish.”[26]

Concerning the time period Messenger of Allah amazingly said, peace and blessings be upon him:

تَدُورُ رَحَى الْإِسْلَامِ لِخَمْسٍ وَثَلَاثِينَ أَوْ سِتٍّ وَثَلَاثِينَ أَوْ سَبْعٍ وَثَلَاثِينَ فَإِنْ يَهْلَكُوا فَسَبِيلُ مَنْ هَلَكَ وَإِنْ يَقُمْ لَهُمْ دِينُهُمْ يَقُمْ لَهُمْ سَبْعِينَ عَامًا قَالَ قُلْتُ أَمِمَّا بَقِيَ أَوْ مِمَّا مَضَى قَالَ مِمَّا مَضَى

“The quern of Islam will revolve for thirty five or thirty six or thirty seven years, and then if they are destroyed then their way is to destruction, and if their religion remains strongly established then for sixty years of what passed by.” [27]

The word “Raha” is a quern or hand mill, and the expression “Raha-al Islam” here indicates that the strength of Islam will remain for this time period and then will -relatively speaking- disintegrate and dissipate, which is exactly happened with the downfall of the rightly guided Caliphs (Kulafa’a ar-Rasahideen) and the establishment of the Umayyids. Then the affair disintegrated even more with the upheavals and civil strife after the downfall of the Umayyad Dynasty from the Eastern lands (they continued for several centuries in Andalusia), which was after seventy years.

And he warned about this, peace and blessing be upon him, saying:

تَعَوَّذُوا بِاللَّهِ مِنْ رَأْسِ السَّبْعِينَ وَإِمَارَةِ الصِّبْيَانِ

“Seek refuge in Allah from the beginning of the seventieth year and the leadership of children.” [28]

This was also foretold by the Prophet peace and blessings be upon when he said:

لَيُنْقَضَنَّ عُرَى الْإِسْلَامِ عُرْوَةً عُرْوَةً فَكُلَّمَا انْتَقَضَتْ عُرْوَةٌ تَشَبَّثَ النَّاسُ بِالَّتِي تَلِيهَا وَأَوَّلُهُنَّ نَقْضًا الْحُكْمُ وَآخِرُهُنَّ الصَّلَاةُ

“The firm knot of Islam will unravel bit by bit, every time a section of the knot is unraveled, the people (Muslims) will stand firm to protect the next (section of the knot): the first section (to unravel) is the rule of government and law (Hukm), and the final one is prayer (Salat).”[29]

And Umair al-Adawi reported that Utba ibn. Ghazwan may Allah be pleased with him, delivered a sermon in a part of which he said:

وَإِنَّهَا لَمْ تَكُنْ نُبُوَّةٌ قَطُّ إِلَّا تَنَاسَخَتْ حَتَّى يَكُونَ آخِرُ عَاقِبَتِهَا مُلْكًا فَسَتَخْبُرُونَ وَتُجَرِّبُونَ الْأُمَرَاءَ بَعْدَنَا

“…. And indeed Prophethood never came except that it transformed and eventually changed into kingship, and you will soon come to know and experience the rulers who will come after us.” [30]

And in a narration of Thauban, may Allah be pleased with him, he said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ زَوَى لِي الْأَرْضَ فَرَأَيْتُ مَشَارِقَهَا وَمَغَارِبَهَا وَإِنَّ أُمَّتِي سَيَبْلُغُ مُلْكُهَا مَا زُوِيَ لِي مِنْهَا وَأُعْطِيتُ الْكَنْزَيْنِ الْأَحْمَرَ وَالْأَبْيَضَ وَإِنِّي سَأَلْتُ رَبِّي لِأُمَّتِي أَنْ لَا يُهْلِكَهَا بِسَنَةٍ عَامَّةٍ وَأَنْ لَا يُسَلِّطَ عَلَيْهِمْ عَدُوًّا مِنْ سِوَى أَنْفُسِهِمْ فَيَسْتَبِيحَ بَيْضَتَهُمْ وَإِنَّ رَبِّي قَالَ يَا مُحَمَّدُ إِنِّي إِذَا قَضَيْتُ قَضَاءً فَإِنَّهُ لَا يُرَدُّ وَإِنِّي أَعْطَيْتُكَ لِأُمَّتِكَ أَنْ لَا أُهْلِكَهُمْ بِسَنَةٍ عَامَّةٍ وَأَنْ لَا أُسَلِّطَ عَلَيْهِمْ عَدُوًّا مِنْ سِوَى أَنْفُسِهِمْ يَسْتَبِيحُ بَيْضَتَهُمْ وَلَوْ اجْتَمَعَ عَلَيْهِمْ مَنْ بِأَقْطَارِهَا أَوْ قَالَ مَنْ بَيْنَ أَقْطَارِهَا حَتَّى يَكُونَ بَعْضُهُمْ يُهْلِكُ بَعْضًا وَيَسْبِي بَعْضُهُمْ بَعْضًا

وَإِنَّمَا أَخَافُ عَلَى أُمَّتِي الْأَئِمَّةَ الْمُضِلِّينَ وَإِذَا وُضِعَ السَّيْفُ فِي أُمَّتِي لَمْ يُرْفَعْ عَنْهَا إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ وَلَا تَقُومُ السَّاعَةُ حَتَّى تَلْحَقَ قَبَائِلُ مِنْ أُمَّتِي بِالْمُشْرِكِينَ وَحَتَّى تَعْبُدَ قَبَائِلُ مِنْ أُمَّتِي الْأَوْثَانَ وَإِنَّهُ سَيَكُونُ فِي أُمَّتِي كَذَّابُونَ ثَلَاثُونَ كُلُّهُمْ يَزْعُمُ أَنَّهُ نَبِيٌّ وَأَنَا خَاتَمُ النَّبِيِّينَ لَا نَبِيَّ بَعْدِي وَلَا تَزَالُ طَائِفَةٌ مِنْ أُمَّتِي عَلَى الْحَقِّ قَالَ ابْنُ عِيسَى ظَاهِرِينَ

ثُمَّ اتَّفَقَا لَا يَضُرُّهُمْ مَنْ خَالَفَهُمْ حَتَّى يَأْتِيَ أَمْرُ اللَّهِ

“Verily Allah has shown me the east and the west of the earth and the domination (or kingdom) of my nation will reach what I saw of it, and I have been given the red and white treasures. I asked my Lord that my nation not be devastated by general affliction (like famine) or by the external enemy other than themselves which will overtake what is most precious, and my Lord said, ‘O Muhammad If I give a decree it cannot be repelled, and I have decreed that your nation will not be devastated by general affliction or by the external enemy other than themselves which will overtake what is most precious even if they come from all corners of the earth, then some of them will destroy the others and take captives.’ I am most fearful of misguided leaders and if the sword is drawn once in my nation then it will never return to the sheath until the Day of Resurrection. The Hour (of the Day of Resurrection) will not come until some of my nation go over to the polytheists and some tribes of my nation worship the idols, and there will be thirty great liars in my nation each one claiming to be a prophet whereas I am the final and last of the prophets and there is no prophet after me. There will not cease to be a group of my nation on the truth and those that oppose them will not harm them until the decisive command of Allah comes with finality.” [31]

Indeed Islam spread out eastwards and westwards with unprecedented swiftness. This fact and the other prophecies in this narration came true, but the point here to emphasize is that the reliable narrations above and many other factors prove that a kingdom and monarchy, here mentioned as “Mulk Ummati” (ملك أمتي) [the domination (or kingdom) of my nation], although not the optimal condition like a Caliphate based on mutual consultation, is not totally illegitimate as the Shi’a and many other deviated sects contend and propagate. The criterion of legitimacy is fulfilling all the leadership responsibilities and needs of the Muslims in upholding the Islamic law justly and defending Islam and the Muslims from the internal and external threats. This leads us towards the controversies about selection and succession.

Issues and controversies over the term “Khaleefat-Allah”

Some scholars say that it is improper to call any man Khaleefat-Allah (خليفة الله) since Allah mentioned Adam as Khaleefah “on the earth” and since Allah is always present, alive, and independent, and thus needs no creature as His Khaleefah, to succeed him and take His place. Others say that this term is only reserved for the prophets Adam and Da`ud peace of Allah be upon them, for the specific verses of the Quran mentioned above, and in the special sense of representing Allah’s commands. Others say that this can be used for all the prophets but no man after them, and they cite the fact that someone said to Abu Bakr as-Sadeeq the first Caliph, may Allah be pleased with him:

ياخليفة الله فقال لست بخليفة الله ولكني خليفة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وأنا راضٍ بذلك

“Oh Khaleefat-Allah, so he said: I am not the Khaleefati-llah but the Khaleefah of the Messenger of Allah peace and blessing be upon him, and I am satisfied with that.”  [32] And they cite the fact that when it was said to Umar ibn al-Khattab the second Caliph, may Allah be pleased with him, (يا خليفة خليفة رسول الله) “Oh Khaleefat Khaleefat-Rasulullah” whereupon he replied with the meaning that this will become a lengthy title since every khaleefa after will have to add another word ‘Khaleefa’, so I am your leader and you are believers so I am “Ameer al-Mu`mineen” “Leader of the believers.

Others say the word Khaleefat-Allah can be used properly for men and they reply to the other opinions that it is only meant as Allah’s placement of men on earth one after another in succession to see how they act themselves and how they rule upon others, and the term may be a title of nobility and honor for those, like the prophets, who act righteously and rule by Allah’s revelation and law with justice. In other words, by being a true slave and worshipper of Allah – Abdullah – and by enforcing the laws of Allah on themselves and others, they are “Khaleefat-Allah” in this sense.  Even if they make some mistakes and repent,

The word “Khaleefat-Allah” (Vicegerent of God) is mentioned in a long narration of Hudthafah ibn Yaman may Allah be pleased with him, saying that the Prophet peace and blessings be upon him, said:

ثُمَّ تَكُونُ هُدْنَةٌ عَلَى دَخَنٍ … ثُمَّ تَكُونُ دُعَاةُ الضَّلَالَةِ قَالَ فَإِنْ رَأَيْتَ يَوْمَئِذٍ خَلِيفَةَ اللَّهِ فِي الْأَرْضِ فَالْزَمْهُ وَإِنْ نَهَكَ جِسْمَكَ وَأَخَذَ مَالَكَ فَإِنْ لَمْ تَرَهُ فَاهْرَبْ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَوْ أَنْ تَمُوتَ وَأَنْتَ عَاضٌّ بِجِذْلِ شَجَرَةٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ ثُمَّ مَاذَا قَالَ ثُمَّ يَخْرُجُ الدَّجَّالُ

“…then there will be a ceasefire agreement… then there will be callers to misguidance and if you can then find a “Khaleefat-Allah” in the earth then stay with him even if he wears out your body and takes your money, and if you do not then go about in the earth and even if you have to bite the root of a tree (to survive) do it. He said, I asked, Then what? He said, then the Dajjal will appear….” [33] Here the command is to seek out what apparently is not entirely obvious and thus needs effort in seeking, and the word “Khaleefat-Allah” is a designation of a good practicing Muslims with real temporal power which entails physical effort and financial resources from those that give him allegiance.

The related compound word “Sultan-Allah” (Ruler of Allah) is mentioned by the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, when he said:

مَنْ أَهَانَ سُلْطَانَ اللَّهِ فِي الْأَرْضِ أَهَانَهُ اللَّهُ

“Whoever dishonors “Sultan-Allah” (Ruler of Allah) in the earth, Allah will dishonor him.” [34]

And in a narration of Abu Bakrah may Allah be pleased with him, who said that the Messenger of Allah peace and blessing upon him, said:

ومن اجل سلطان الله في الأرض أجله الله يوم القيامة

“Whoever honors a “Sultan-Allah” in the earth, Allah will honor him on the Day of Resurrection.” [35]

And in the chain of narrators on Thauban may Allah be pleased with him, who said that the Messenger of Allah peace and blessing upon him, said:

يَقْتَتِلُ عِنْدَ كَنْزِكُمْ ثَلَاثَةٌ كُلُّهُمْ ابْنُ خَلِيفَةٍ ثُمَّ لَا يَصِيرُ إِلَى وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمْ ثُمَّ تَطْلُعُ الرَّايَاتُ السُّودُ مِنْ قِبَلِ الْمَشْرِقِ فَيَقْتُلُونَكُمْ قَتْلًا لَمْ يُقْتَلْهُ قَوْمٌ ثُمَّ ذَكَرَ شَيْئًا لَا أَحْفَظُهُ فَقَالَ فَإِذَا رَأَيْتُمُوهُ فَبَايِعُوهُ وَلَوْ حَبْوًا عَلَى الثَّلْجِ فَإِنَّهُ خَلِيفَةُ اللَّهِ الْمَهْدِيُّ

“There will be a fighting between three, each the son of a Caliph, then none of them will reach it, then black banners will appear from the east and they will kill you in a manner of killing not done before – then he mentioned something – and if you see him then pledge allegiance to him even crawling on the snow, for he is the Khaleefat-Allah (Caliph of Allah) al-Mahdi.”  [36]

This amazing tradition is controversial for many reasons, but first we must note some of the controversies about the Isnad (chain of narrators). The chain continues until we find the narrators :

عَنْ أَبِي قِلَابَةَ عَنْ أَبِي أَسْمَاءَ الرَّحَبِيِّ عَنْ ثَوْبَانَ عَنْ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ

“on Abi Qilabah on Abi Asmas`a ar-Rahabi on Tauban may Allah be pleased with him. Sheikh al-Albani declared that the narration is correct in its meaning except for the phrase “Khaleefat-Allah al-Mahdi” for this is weak for the fact, among others, that Abi Qilabah did not say “related to me, but rather said ‘on.” This is called ’An’anah (to say on) and thus there may be some level of “Tadlees” (deceitfulness) in play. Some narrations of the narrator who perform Tadless may be classified as weak if he actually did not directly hear the narration but took it from another, meaning he related this on another narrator in between the persons he mentioned.  This is dangerous for the reliability of a narration since it may be that that link is the weak link in the chain not mentioned, and for this reason he said “on’ rather than saying “he said to me” or “he told me” or “he related to me” or another expression that denoted direct contact.  It is said that Abi Qilabah is weak when he related in this fashion, but it must be noted that Ibn Hajar placed Abi Qalabah in the first level of the Mudalaseen, those whose “Tadless” does not harm their narration in any manner since they only do this on reliable narrators, and in this level are the likes of al-Bukhari and Muslim.[37] Moreover there are four narrations in Sahih Muslim with the narration of “on Abi Qilabah on Abi Asmas`a ar-Rahabi on Tauban may Allah be pleased with him” and these are agreed by all to be authentic narrations. [38]

This chain of (عَنْ أَبِي قِلابَةَ عَنْ أَبِي أَسْمَاءَ عَنْ ثَوْبَانَ) “on Abi Qilabah on Abi Asmas`a on Tauban is also found in the books of Sunan, Abu Da`ud, at-Tirmidthi, and Ibn Majah, (and an-Nasa`e in his Sunan al-Kubra), and the Musnad of Imam Ahmad and many other books of Hadeeth literature, with many scholars of Hadeeth science verifying the narrations to be reliable and authentic.

Another reason that the phrase is weak is that it is deemed that the term

“Khaleefat-Allah” is not legally allowed in Islam.

[some parts of of this section deleted here in this online excerpt]

….

Moreover there are those of the early Muslims who used the term “Khaleefat-Allah” in their speech and poetry. We find in the reported sayings of Hasan al-Basri:

مَنْ أمَرَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ أو نَهَى عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ فَهُوَ خَلِيفَةُ اللهِ في أرْضِهِ  وَخَلِيفَةُ رَسُولِهِ  وَخِلِيفَةُ كِتَابِهِ

“Whoever commands good and forbids evil then he is Khaleefat-Allah on the earth, and the Khaleefah of His Messenger and the Khaleefah of His Book (the Quran).”

And it is reported in various Tafseer his exegesis of the saying of Allah:

﴿﴾ وَمَنْ أَحْسَنُ قَوْلا مِمَّنْ دَعَا إِلَى اللَّهِ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا وَقَالَ إِنَّنِي مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ ﴿﴾

هذا حبيب الله، هذا وليّ الله، هذا صفوة الله، هذا خيرة الله، هذا أحبّ الخلق إلى الله، أجاب الله في دعوته، ودعا الناس إلى ما أجاب الله فيه من دعوته، وعمل صالحا في إجابته، وقال: إنني من المسلمين، فهذا خليفة الله

He said:

….

[some parts of  deleted]

….

[39]

And we find the statement of Abdullah ibn Ja’far ibn Abi Talib may Allah be pleased with them:

ولينا أبو بكر فكان خير خليفة الله وأرحمه بنا وأحناه علينا

“Our friend and ally is Abu Bakr the best Khaleefat-Allah, the most merciful and empathetic on us.” [40]

Hajjaj ibn Yusuf ath-Thaqafi, the famous oppressive governor of Iraq in the time of the Caliphate of Abdul Malik ibn Marwan, said in a sermon on the minbar:

فَاسْمَعُوا وَأَطِيعُوا لِخَلِيفَةِ اللَّهِ وَصَفِيِّهِ عَبْدِ الْمَلِكِ بْنِ مَرْوَانَ

“Listen and obey the Vicegerent of Allah and his Chosen One, Abdul Malik ibn Marwan…”[41] This of course was of his interpretation and an exaggeration in demanding the obedience to the Caliph, raising his status to the just and righteous leaders that must be obey, for as it is well known there is no obedience to man the disobedience to Allah.

And we find the word in poetry usages also, yet one may say that these are just poetic license, the excesses of the poets as they are known to exaggerate. One example is the poetess Laila al-Akyaliyyah in her eulogy of Uthman, may Allah be pleased with him:

خَلِيفَةُ اللَّهِ أَعْطَاهُمْ وَخَوَّلَهُمْ *** مَا كَانَ مِنْ ذَهَبٍ حُلْوٍ وَأَوْرَاقِ

“Khaleefat-Allah given them and entrusted them, the sweetness of the gold and silver. [42] In other word Allah gave them a ruler and entrusted him with the distribution of wealth.

And in the praise of the governor Zayyad we find the saying of the poet Harithah ibn Badr al-Ghadani:

أخوك خليفة الله ابن حربٍ *** وأنت وزيره نعم الوزير

“Your brother is the Khaleefat-Allah son of Harb, and you are the minister and what a good minister. [43] The son of Harb is of course Mu’awiyah ibn Abi Sufyan, the Khaleefah of the Muslims after Hasan ibn Ali abdicated as we will explain below, may Allah be pleased with them.

And in the poetry of Abdullah ibn Qais praising the Umayyad Caliph Abdul Malik ibn Marwan:

خَلِيفَةُ اللهِ فَوْقَ مِنْبَرِه … جَفَّتْ بِذَاكَ الأقْلامُ والكُتُبُ

Khaleefat-Allah above his Minbar

On this the pens and scrolls have become dry

And in another version

خليفة الله في بريته … حقت بذاك الأقلام والكتب

Khaleefat-Allah upon his subjects

This is the truth spoken by the pens and scrolls

And in the poetry of Farazdaq praising the Umayyad Caliph Sulaiman ibn Abdul Malik:

ما يُعْجِبُ الناسَ أَنْ أضْحَكْتُ خَيْرَهُمُ … خليفَةَ الله يُسْتَسْقَى به المَطَرُ

Is it amazing for the people that I make their leader laugh,

Khaleefat-Allah by whom supplication is made for the rain [44]

The meaning is that the ruler orders the people to perform the Prayer for Rain (Istasqa`a) to be made asking Allah for the lifting of drought.

And in the famous story when Mu’tasim the Abbasid Caliph conquered the city of ‘Amurriyyah from the Romans when the woman called out to him to protect her, Wa Mu’tasimaa, and this incident generated much poetry praising him, and among this is the saying:

خليفة الله جازى الله سعيك عن … جرثومة الدين والإسلام والحسب

Khaleefat-Allah may Allah give you reward for your endeavor

To erase the shame on the religion and Islam and honor

The prose and poetry above and other examples we could cite of the scholars mentioning the term down through the ages, does not constitute any proof in and of itself but are mentioned just to note the terms usage among the Arab speaking Muslims. Any absolute proof for the legitimate use of this term is only in the authentic narrations of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him.

….

[and so on with translated texts and explanations from the  book]


[1] Iran regime sponsors terrorism ABC News

[3] By Lisa Miller And Matthew Philips, Newsweek, Oct. 12, 2006

[4] TomPaine.com: February 13, 2006

[5] ABC news, Aug. 1, 2007: Obama Delivers Bold Speech About War on Terror: Presidential Candidate Pushes Aggressive Stance Toward Pakistan; By JAKE TAPPER.

[12] Understanding Islam’s Threat to U.S. Vital, by Frank J. Gaffney Jr., president of the Center for Security Policy, a columnist for the Washington Times, and the host of the nationally syndicated Secure Freedom Radio

http://www.newsmax.com/frank_gaffney/islam_obama_shariah/2009/08/10/246009.html

[14] See the commentaries of the Qur`an which mention these two reported sayings among the companions and followers after them, like at-Tabari 1/200, Ibn Katheer 1/70 and Ibn Jauzi 1/60 and others.

[15] Reported by Muslim and others.

[16] Reported by Muslim and others.

[17] Reported by Imam Ahmad and at-Tabrani and confirmed as authentic by al-Albani in Sahih al-Jame as-Sagheer no. 4222,

[18] Reported by al-Bukhari and others.

[19] Reported by Muslim and others.

[20] Reported by Abu Da`ud, 4/201, no. 4707, at-Tirmidthi 5/44, no.2676, and Ibn Mahad 1/15-16, no. 42- 4 and Ahmad 4/46-47, and verified as authentic by al-Albani in Sahih al-Jame’ 1/782 no.7819.

[21] Reported by Ahmad, and verified by al-Albani as reliable in as-Silsilah as-Sahihah 1/8 #5.

[22] Reported by al-Bukhari, Muslim and others.

[23] Reported by Ahmad, at-Tirmidthi and others and see Sahih Al-Jami’as-Saghir no. 3341.

[24] Reported by at-Tabrani and al-Baihaqi and others and declared authentic by al-Albani in Silsilah as-Sahihah 9/50 #3270, and yet I found in at-Tabrani the addition after ‘Kingship and mercy’ the phrase, (ثُمَّ يَكُونُ إِمَارَةً وَرَحْمَةً) “Leadership and mercy.”

[25] Reported by al-Bukhar and Muslim and others.

[26] Both versions reported by Muslim and others.

[27] Reported by Ahmad #3703 with slight difference, and verified as authentic by Arana`ut, and reported by Abu Da`ud and al-Hakim as above and verified as authentic by al-Albani in Sahih al-Jame’ as-Sagheer #5245 and SS #976.

[28] Reported by Ahmad and Abu Ya’la and Bazzar and verified as good by al-Albani in SS #3191.

[29] Reported by Ahmad #22214, Ibn Haban # 36715, Hakim #7022, at-Tabarani #7486 and al-Baihaqi, and others and verified as good by by al-Arna`ut, and as authentic by Sheikh al-Albani in Sahih Jami’ as-Sagheer #9206, #5075, and by as-Sulaimani (al Ma`rabi) in his treatise on leaving Salat.

[30] Reported by Muslim and many others

[31] Reported by Abu Da`ud, Ahmad and Ibn Habbaan and others, and verified as authentic by Arana`ut and al-Albani in Sahih al-Jame’ as-Sagheer #1773.

[32] Reported by many including Ahmad, Ibn Abi Shaibah, and Abi Bakr ibn al-Khalal, al-Ajuuri, on Ibn Abi Maleekah except that he did not reach the time of Abu Bakr and thus the story is not confirmed.

[33] Reported by Imam Ahmad and Abu Da`ud. Al-Albani ruled that this narration is good (Hasan) in Sahih al-Jame’as-Sagheer # 2995, and Sheikh al-Arna`ut also says it is good in his verification of Musnad Ahmad 5/408.

[34] Reported by Imam Ahmd and at-Tirmidthi and al-Albani ruled that this narration is good (Hasan) in Sahih at-Tirmidthi  # 2224.

[35] Reported by at-Tabarani and confirmed as good by al-Albani SJ # 10895, Sahihah # 2297.

[36] Reported by Ahmad 5/277 #22387, Ibn Majah #4184 Bazzar, al-Hakim #4881, and Abu Nu’aim #32 and others and classified as good or authentic by al-Hakim, adth-Dthahabi, Ibn Kahteer in an-Nahayah 1/29, and al Busari, and in the modern era by Abdul Aztheem ibn Abdul ِِِAleem in his Masters thesis of University of Umm al-Qura 1398H/1978CE entitled “al-Ahadeeth al-Waridah fi al-Mahdi bain al-Jarh wal-Tadeel,” Mustafa Adawi, and Muhammad al-Ameen. For the assessment that the narration is weak see al-Albani Silsalah ad-Dae’eefah 1/119 # 95. Sheikh Bashar Uwad Ma’ruf said that its Isnad is “Sahih” but then said that there is incorrectness in the wording as Sheikh al-Albani said in detail in his as-Silsalah al-Ahadeeth ad-Da’eefah.

[37] Tabaqat al-Mudalaseem 1/21.

[38] These are # 944,  #1920, # 2068, and #2889.  The last narration is of importance to our investigation, so I will mention it in full from Sahih Muslim:

5144 – [9 – (2889)]  حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو الرَّبِيعِ الْعَتَكِيُّ وَقُتَيْبَةُ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ كِلَاهُمَا عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ زَيْدٍ وَاللَّفْظُ لِقُتَيْبَةَ حَدَّثَنَا حَمَّادٌ عَنْ أَيَّوبَ عَنْ أَبِي قِلَابَةَ عَنْ أَبِي أَسْمَاءَ عَنْ ثَوْبَانَ قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ زَوَى لِي الْأَرْضَ فَرَأَيْتُ مَشَارِقَهَا وَمَغَارِبَهَا وَإِنَّ أُمَّتِي سَيَبْلُغُ مُلْكُهَا مَا زُوِيَ لِي مِنْهَا وَأُعْطِيتُ الْكَنْزَيْنِ الْأَحْمَرَ وَالْأَبْيَضَ وَإِنِّي سَأَلْتُ رَبِّي لِأُمَّتِي أَنْ لَا يُهْلِكَهَا بِسَنَةٍ عَامَّةٍ وَأَنْ لَا يُسَلِّطَ عَلَيْهِمْ عَدُوًّا مِنْ سِوَى أَنْفُسِهِمْ فَيَسْتَبِيحَ بَيْضَتَهُمْ وَإِنَّ رَبِّي قَالَ يَا مُحَمَّدُ إِنِّي إِذَا قَضَيْتُ قَضَاءً فَإِنَّهُ لَا يُرَدُّ وَإِنِّي أَعْطَيْتُكَ لِأُمَّتِكَ أَنْ لَا أُهْلِكَهُمْ بِسَنَةٍ عَامَّةٍ وَأَنْ لَا أُسَلِّطَ عَلَيْهِمْ عَدُوًّا مِنْ سِوَى أَنْفُسِهِمْ يَسْتَبِيحُ بَيْضَتَهُمْ وَلَوْ اجْتَمَعَ عَلَيْهِمْ مَنْ بِأَقْطَارِهَا أَوْ قَالَ مَنْ بَيْنَ أَقْطَارِهَا حَتَّى يَكُونَ بَعْضُهُمْ يُهْلِكُ بَعْضًا وَيَسْبِي بَعْضُهُمْ بَعْضًا

“…on Abi Qalabah on Asmas`a ar-Rahabi on Tauban may Allah be pleased with him. He said, the Messneger of Allah said, peace and blessings be upon him:  “Verily Allah has shown me the earth in the east and west and the domination (or kingdom) of my nation (Mulk Ummati) will reach what I saw of it, and I have been given the red and white treasures (gold and silver). I asked my Lord that my nation not be devastated by general affliction (like famine) or by the external enemy other than themselves which will overtake what is most precious and my Lord said, ‘O Muhammad If I give a decree it cannot be repelled, and I have decreed that your nation will not be devastated by general affliction (like famine) or by the external enemy other than themselves which will overtake what is most precious even if they come from all corners of the earth then some of them will destroy the others of them and take captives from the other.’

Imam Ahmad Abu Da`ud, and Ibn Habban and others add a conclusion to this narration, and this addition is verified as authentic by Sheikh al-Arna`ut and Sheikh al-Albani, (see his Sahih al-Jame’ as-Sagheer #1773) as the Prophet says peace and blessings be upon him,

وَإِنَّمَا أَخَافُ عَلَى أُمَّتِي الْأَئِمَّةَ الْمُضِلِّينَ وَإِذَا وُضِعَ السَّيْفُ فِي أُمَّتِي لَمْ يُرْفَعْ عَنْهَا إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ وَلَا تَقُومُ السَّاعَةُ حَتَّى تَلْحَقَ قَبَائِلُ مِنْ أُمَّتِي بِالْمُشْرِكِينَ وَحَتَّى تَعْبُدَ قَبَائِلُ مِنْ أُمَّتِي الْأَوْثَانَ وَإِنَّهُ سَيَكُونُ فِي أُمَّتِي كَذَّابُونَ ثَلَاثُونَ كُلُّهُمْ يَزْعُمُ أَنَّهُ نَبِيٌّ وَأَنَا خَاتَمُ النَّبِيِّينَ لَا نَبِيَّ بَعْدِي وَلَا تَزَالُ طَائِفَةٌ مِنْ أُمَّتِي عَلَى الْحَقِّ قَالَ ابْنُ عِيسَى ظَاهِرِينَ ثُمَّ اتَّفَقَا لَا يَضُرُّهُمْ مَنْ خَالَفَهُمْ حَتَّى يَأْتِيَ أَمْرُ اللَّهِ

“… I am most fearful of misguided leaders and if the sword is drawn and strikes in my nation (by Muslims on themselves) then it will never return to the sheath until the Day of Resurrection. The Hour (of the Day of Resurrection) will not come until some of my nation go over to the polytheists and some tribes of my nation worship the idols, and there will be thirty great liars in my nation each one claiming to be a prophet whereas I am the final and last (literally the seal) of the prophets and there is no prophet after me. There will not cease to be a group of my nation on the truth and those that oppose them will not harm them, until the decisive command of Allah comes with finality.”

[39] Both these commentaries of the Quranic verses  are  is famous and in many books of Tafseer, like at-Tabari and ibn Katheer.

[40] Reported by al-Hakim. Ahmad in Fada`il as-Sahabah, al-Baihaqi, ash-Shafa’e,  in al-Umm, and others

[41] Reported by Abu Da`ud no. 4027, and declared authentic by al-Albani in his verification Sahih Abi Da`ud.

[42] Reported by at-Tabrani in his Mu’jam al-Kabeer no.125, and mentioned by many others.

[43] This is found in Ansanb al-Ashraf .

[44] Famous poetry and part of his Diwan; see for instance as-She’ir wash-Shu’ura`a of Ibn Qutaibah.


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