TAJREED AT-TAUHEED AL-MUFEED (Revealing the Beneficial Monotheism): al-Maqreezi

تجريد التوحيد المفيد


(Revealing the Beneficial Monotheism)

Ash-Sheikh Al-Imam

Taqi ad-Deen Ahmad ibn Ali al-Maqreezi (d. 845 H.)

((للشيخ الإمام تقي الدين أحمد بن علي المقريزي))

Translation, Foreword and Notes by

Abu Salman Deya ud-Deen Eberle

ترجمة وتقديم وتعليق

أبو ســـلمان ضياء الدين ابرلي


Edited by Um Salman Eberle

52 pages

[The meaning of Rabb (Lord)]
[The meaning of al-Ilahiyyah (divinity, deity, and the right to be worshiped)]
[Tauheed (Monotheism) has two outer shells]
[The heart of Tauheed, a
nd what is not part of Tauheed]
[Tauheed ar-Rububiyyah (Monotheism of Lordship) must be along with Tauheed al-Ilahiyyah  (Monotheism of Divinity and Worship)]
[The distinction between Monotheism of Lordship and Monotheism of Divinity and Worship]
[The words “al-Rabb;”  “al-Malik;” and “al-Ilah”]
[Concerning Sorcery, and seeking refuge from it]
[Shirk (polytheism and idolatry) in Worship]
[Equalization in love and worship (of others with Allah) is the Shirk that is not forgiven]
[Shirk in Lordship is the worst kind of Shirk]
[Revealing absolute Monotheism in deeds, words, and intentions]
[Prohibition of Taking the Graves as Mosques and Places of Worship]
[Categories of people in visiting the graves]
[Prostration to others besides Allah]
[Another kind of Shirk is Swearing an Oath by other than Allah]
[Kinds of Shirk that have been warned against]
[Explanation about the meaning of Ibadah (worship)]
[Shirk of denial, and other kinds]
[Shirk in Allah’s Self, Names, Attributes and Actions]
[Denial is the root of Shirk]
[Shirk of Resemblance]
[The Exclusive Attribute of a Deity is Absolute Perfection]
[Those that make themselves like Allah, are destroyed by Allah]
[Making Resemblances and Likenesses is the essence of Shirk (polytheism and idolatry)]
[Taking intercessors is absolute folly]
[Disallowance of submission, awe and worship (to any intermediates)]
[Origin of the Misguidance of the Deviants]
[Whoever worships other than Allah actually worships Satan]
[Groups of people in relation to worship and seeking aid]
[Being honored or dishonored is by fear of Allah or its absence]
[Explanation about the meaning of Isti’anah (seeking aid)]
[By following the Prophet strictly (Ittiba’ah) and Sincerity in Worship of Allah (Ikhlas), there is salvation]
[Some examples of extremism, and taking the law from one direction]
[The people of absolute worship and their complete, perfect methodology]
[A similitude and proof that this methodology of the people of absolute devotion and wholehearted worship at all times is the most correct and successful]
[The meaning of a word]
[The praise for those who give everyone their due rights]
[Four positions of the people about the wisdom of worship]
[Refutation and criticism of al-Jabriyyah and al-Qadariyyah]
[Those that promote spiritual training and techniques]
[The correct way in creed, faith and deed]
[We were created for worship of Allah]


Forth coming (insha-Allah: God willing)

Excerpt from pages 5-13

(Scroll down to bottom of page for footnotes)


بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين والصلاة والسلام  على رسوله المصطفى الأمين

وآله وصحبه ومن أتبعهم بإحسان إلى يوم الدين


In the name of Allah Most Beneficent Most Merciful

All praise is for Allah the Exalted and may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon His Messenger Muhammad, his family, companions and all those who follow them and their way until the Day of Resurrection

Translator’s Foreword

Indeed, all praise belongs to Allah. We praise Him, seek His Aid and His Forgiveness and we seek refuge in Allah from the evil of ourselves and from the evil of our actions. Whomsoever Allah guides, none can misguide, and whomsoever Allah misguides none can guide thereafter. I bear witness that there is no god except Allah (nothing has the right to be worshipped except Him), who is alone without partners. I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger.

“O you who believe! Fear Allah as He should be feared and die not except that you are Muslims.” (3:102)

“O Mankind! Fear your Lord, Who created you from a single soul (Adam) and from him created his partner (Eve) and from them both sent forth and scattered many men and women. So fear Allah through whom you demand your mutual rights and by the reverence of the wombs that bore you. For Allah is ever watchful over you.” (4:l)

“O you who believe! Fear Allah and say a truthful word. He will direct you to do righteous actions and will forgive you your sins. Whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger has already attained the highest success.” (33:70-71)

Indeed the best speech is the Book of Allah and the best guidance is the guidance of Muhammad, peace and blessing be upon him. The worst of affairs are the invented matters, for every newly invented matter is an innovation, and every innovation is misguidance and every misguidance is in Hellfire.

Al-Imam Taqi ad-Deen Ahmad ibn Ali al-Maqrezi, may Allah have mercy on him, was one of the preeminent scholars of Egypt of the ninth century Hijri (born 766 H. and died 845 H.) whose expansive knowledge allowed him to particulate in many fields of scholarship. He is especially noted for his historical works like “al-Khutat” [Precepts] and “ad-Dhtahab al-Masbuq li man Hajj min al-Khulafa`a wal-Muluk.” [Unprecedented Golden (information) about those performed Pilgrimage of the Kings and Caliphs]. The book before us is unique in that it was the first book of the Islamic library, which, according to Sheikh Hammad Al-Ansari, may Allah’s mercy encompass him, dealt solely with explaining the subject of Tauheed al-Uluhiyyah (monotheism of divinity and worship of Allah) and what contradicts it partially or totally. The subject had of course been dealt with extensively in the chapters and sections of many books but was not singled out for a separate book. During the time of the author the innovations and deviancies about worship had become so prevalent that he saw the need to single it out for his authorship.  In a sense he lead the way for the books of the revivers of Islam that came in the latter centuries, like the works and books of, for instance, Uthman Dan Folio of Nigeria, Muhammad Ali ash-Shaukani and al-Amir as-San’ani of Yemen, Muhammad ibn Abdul Wahab of Arabia, Ahmad Irfan and Isma’el ad-Dahlawi of India, and others.

One cannot help notice, as did Sheikh al-Ansari, Sheikh Dr. Muhammad Aman al-Jami, and also Sheikh Sulaiman al-Alwan,  may Allah have mercy on them, in their commentaries on this book of Maqrezis’s, that there is resemblance between sections of this book and the ‘Book of Tauheed’ of Muhammad ibn Abdul-Wahhab. The book “Taqwiyat al-Iman” of Isma’el ad-Dahlawi also has a clear resemblance to Maqreezi’s in some sections. Apparently the prevalence of common forms of idolatry, innovations and superstition during their eras prompted them all to mention these sections. Today many of the same problems remain in much of the Muslim world due to rampant ignorance, corruption and alien influences, although we have the added problems of the vestiges of cultural imperialism and of secularism.

Tajreed (تجريد) has been translated here as ‘revealing’ although like with many Arabic words there are shades of meanings, and a translator has to choose one for translation. An alternate translation can be “singling out” but this is rather cumbersome for a title.  Tajreed has the meaning of taking off an outer garment or covering to reveal what lies beneath, and additionally, to take away anything addition to expose the most essential element.

The author mentions that Tauheed (monotheism) has two outer peels that are its superficial meanings, along with an inner core that constitute its essence. From this metaphor he derives his title, since the Arabic word “Tajreed” means to peel back the outer covering and the shell of something to reveal the meat of the fruit, vegetable or nut. The intended benefit, of course, is what lies beneath. No person of his right mind would be content with the peel to satisfy hunger, yet many people in the subject of Tauheed are content with the superficial crusts, so to speak, while ignorant and astray about the life giving essence. Idolatry, polytheism, grave worship, saint worship, absurd innovations and superstitions, philosophical speculations, the theological sophism, are only able to thrive in the environment of ignorance, false desires, arrogance and tyranny. Unfortunately these have become widespread in the latter eras of the Muslims in their intransigence, fragmentation and decline. All Muslims who remain cognizant agree that any revitalization of the Muslim individual, community and the Islamic nation collectively, must begin with making Tauheed correct and beneficial, by penetrating its crusts to believe in and practice its essence. Allah willing, this book will participate in its English edition as it did in its original Arabic version, in this revival.

The author shows the absurdities of the arguments of the grave worshipers, the Sufis, the philosophers, and other deviants in their innovated and corrupted forms of belief and worship. He warns against various kinds of Shirk (polytheism and idolatry). He elucidates the importance of trusting in Allah and seeking His aid by bestowing upon us beneficial knowledge and power, since only by this means can we worship Allah by what He is pleased with.

A noteworthy point to remember of Maqrezi’s explanation is that he points out that mistakes by deviants in monotheism are often multiple. For instance the grave worshiper makes a critical mistake in Monotheism of Lordship by believing that the so called saints in the graves have special powers and status which allow them act freely in Allah’s creation, benefiting or interceding for whom they will. This belief leads him to the critical mistake in Monotheism of Divinity and Worship by supplicating them, making vows to them, and directing his love, awe and adoration to them in a manner that only befits Allah the Exalted.  They do not deny Allah or His Supreme Lordship, nor would they ever claim that the saints are ‘gods’ but they make them into partners with Allah in His exclusive Attributes of Lordship and Divinity.  Denial of Allah’s Names or Attributes is a violation against His Lordship and against those specific Names or Attributes which are denied: and this often leads to commensurate deviations and polytheism in practical worship.

The Arabic book was published in 1373 H. by al-Maktba’ah al-Muneeriyyah bil-Azhar ash-Shareef (Muneeriyyah Printing Press at Azhar University), with useful footnotes of commentary by Sheikh Taha Muhammad al-Zaini, of the scholars from the University of al-Azhar, may Allah have mercy upon him, Al-Maktba’ah al-Muneeriyyah is well known for reviving and propagating the works of the Salaf as-Salih. Subtitles have been added and put in brackets [] to differentiate them since they are not in the original.  Dr. Muhammad Aman al-Jami, may Allah have mercy on him, made a commentary of the book in a series of tapes that were compiled as a book of which I only had access to the partial version of it, and of which I have used for reference. The Arabic electronic version available at various websites has corruptions and misprints in the text which becomes apparent by comparison with the printed versions, and with the partial commentary by Dr. Muhammad Aman al-Jami, may Allah have mercy upon him. A student of knowledge should always remain aware of the textual reliability of any book he reads to correct misprints. The first step of particular literary knowledge is confirmation of any manuscript’s scriptural authenticity and purity, followed by determining the linguistic meaning of the text, then followed by proper understanding of the text in its context, along with the beneficial judgments derived from the text and its relation to other sayings in the same subject. Finally, of course, the seeker of knowledge must put knowledge into practice by good deeds, and that is the objective of all the quest and endeavor. These steps of Islamic instruction are called Riwayah, then Duraiyah, then Ri’ayah (narration, then understanding, then consideration i.e. by deeds). One should have recourse to an experienced and competent mentor and teacher as a guide and not rely solely on printed matter and individual exploration. This is found in the community with knowledgeable leaders, and all Muslims should attach themselves to a vibrant community of believers.

Translation is, of course, both a science and an idiosyncratic art, and there are so many ways to express an idea. Some freedom and license has been taken to make some difficult passages read easier according to my understanding. I invite Muslim scholars and students of knowledge to contact me for any comments and constructive criticism since we all hope to promote better understanding and transmission of the knowledge and practice of Tauheed.

Abu Salman Deya ud-Deen Eberle



1427H. – 2006C.E.

Revised 2009

In the name of Allah the Most Beneficent in Mercy, Most Merciful

All praise be to Allah Lord of the Universe. The good results are only for those that fear Allah. May the peace and blessings be upon our Prophet, the final seal of the prophets, and upon all of his family and companions.

This book contains many benefits and original writings that will help those that seek Allah and the life of the Hereafter. I have given it the title TAJREED AT-TAUHEED AL-MUFEED [Revealing the Absolute Beneficial Monotheism] and ask Allah’s aid to accomplish good deeds by His Grace.

Know that Allah is the Lord of everything, and its Master, Owner and God.

[The meaning of Rabb (Lord)] (الرب) [1]

The word “Rabb” is derived from “rabba yurabbu rabban fa hua raabin” and the meaning of the saying of Allah the Exalted in the Qur`an: {رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ} “Lord of the worlds (or universe)” (1:1) is that He is the Lord Sovereign of all the worlds, the Creator who brought them all into existence, and who sustains them with guidance, rectification, sustenance, health and welfare in their religion, and in their life of this world.

[The meaning of al-Ilahiyyah (divinity, deity, and the right to be worshiped)] (الإلهية) [2]

Al-Ilahiyyah indicates that all creation takes Allah the Glorious as their God with utmost love, fear, hope, humility, repentance, vowing, obedience, seeking, trust, and similar great meanings. The reality of “Tauheed” (monotheism) is that a person perceives that everything is from Allah, so that the means, causes and effects do not deceive the believer. He sees that good and evil are ultimately from Allah (in what He created), and this state brings the believer to trust in Allah and leave off complaining and being reproachful about the created things. He becomes pleased with Allah, and submits to that which Allah has decreed.

Upon this, know that the Rububiyyah (Lordship) is from Allah to His servants, and that the Ta`alluha (taking Him as the divine deity with love, awe and hope) is from the servants to Allah the Glorious, while the Attribute of Mercy is the connection between Allah the Almighty and Majestic, and His servants.

[Tauheed (Monotheism) (التوحيد) has two outer shells]

Know that the most precious and noble deed of a person is Tauheed of Allah the Exalted, but Tauheed has two shells:

The first shell is to say with your tongue LA ILAAHA ILLALLAH (there is no god except Allah).  This saying is called Tauheed and is the opposite of the trinity in which the Christians believe. A hypocrite, whose inner reality contrasts with his outer actions, may participate in this shell of Tauheed.

The second shell is not to have any opposition or denial of what this saying LA ILAAHA ILLALLAH means: rather, the heart believes and confirms this saying. This is the Tauheed of the general public.

[The heart of Tauheed, and what is not part of Tauheed]

The heart of Tauheed is to see that everything is for Allah the Exalted, to curtail oneself from observing the intermediaries, to worship Him the Glorious with worships exclusively for Him, and to not worship any other being. To follow one’s selfish false desires are not a part of this Tauheed, since those that follow the false desires take them as objects of worship; in effect, a false god, an idolization.  Allah the Exalted said: { أَرَأَيْتَ مَنِ اتَّخَذَ إِلَهَهُ هَوَاهُ } “Have you seen he who has taken as his god his own desire…” (45:23) If you contemplate the idolater, you realize that he doesn’t worship the idol, but worships his desire.  His soul inclines towards following the religion of his forefathers, and he follows this selfish inclination. The inclination of the soul towards its habits is one of the meanings of desire. To be angry at the creation and depend on them is not part of Tauheed. How can the person who sees that everything is from Allah get angry with others and place his hope on others? [3] This is the monotheism of the people of truthfulness.

[Tauheed ar-Rububiyyah (Monotheism of Lordship) must be along with Tauheed al-Ilahiyyah (Monotheism of Divinity and Worship)]

Without doubt the polytheist does not deny the monotheism of lordship of Allah the Glorious. Rather, he acknowledges that Allah alone is their Creator and the Creator of the heavens and earth, and the Beneficent Sustainer of everything for their welfare. They only deny the monotheism of divinity and love, as Allah mentioned about them in His saying:

{ وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَنْ يَتَّخِذُ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ أَنْدَادًا يُحِبُّونَهُمْ كَحُبِّ اللَّهِ وَالَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا أَشَدُّ حُبًّا لِلَّهِ }

“And among the people are those who take other than Allah as equals to Him loving them as they should love Allah. But those who believe are stronger in love for Allah.” (2:165) When they made others like Allah (in partnership) in His monotheism they became polytheists. As Allah the Exalted said:

{ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ وَجَعَلَ الظُّلُمَاتِ وَالنُّورَ ثُمَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِرَبِّهِمْ يَعْدِلُونَ }

“Praise is to Allah who created the heavens and the earth and made the darkness and the light. But thereafter those who disbelieve equate others with their Lord.” (6:1)

Allah the Glorious and Exalted has taught His servants how to completely avoid idolatry and polytheism in the monotheism of divinity and worship by teaching them that He alone is the Wali (friend and ally), the Hakam (ruler, legislator and judge), and the Rabb (Lord). Allah the Exalted said: { قُلْ أَغَيْرَ اللَّهِ أَتَّخِذُ وَلِيًّا} “Say ‘is it other than Allah I should take as a Wali (ally and protector)?’” (6:14) And He the Exalted said: {أَفَغَيْرَ اللَّهِ أَبْتَغِي حَكَمًا} “Say ‘is it other than Allah I should seek as Hakam (judge)?’” (6:114) And He the Glorified said: {قُلْ أَغَيْرَ اللَّهِ أَبْغِي رَبًّا} “Say ‘is it other than Allah I should desire as a Rabb (Lord)’” (6:164) [4]

[The distinction between Monotheism of Lordship and Monotheism of Divinity and Worship]

There is no Protector, Ruler, Judge or Lord except Allah. Whoever equates another with Allah has committed idolatry in His exclusive right to be God and to be worshiped even if that person makes Allah one in his Lordship since all people, believers and disbelievers, acknowledge that this Lordship is for Allah. The Monotheism of Divinity and Worship is that which divides people into believers and polytheists.  For this reason the statement of Islam is “LA ILAAHA ILLALLAH” (there is no god except Allah). If a person said: LA RABB ILLALLAH (there is no lord except Allah) this would not be sufficient according to the scholars who have studied the issue in depth. Monotheism of Divinity and Worship is that which is obligatory from the servants. The word “Allah” in its origin is “al-Ilah” (The God) as the linguist Sibbawaiy said, and this is the correct position and the saying of the majority of the scholars, except a few aberrant views.

By this explanation of the word ‘al-Ilah,’ and that He is the beloved who has the excellent traits of perfection, the word ‘Allah’ encompasses all the Beautiful Names and Attributes of Perfection. This is what the polytheists deny and reject. Allah the Lord, Glorified and Exalted argues with them citing their acknowledgment of Allah as their only Lord Creator, Sustainer etc, to prove that He is their only Deity and God. As Allah the Exalted said:

قُلِ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ وَسَلَامٌ عَلَى عِبَادِهِ الَّذِينَ اصْطَفَى آَللَّهُ خَيْرٌ أَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ * أَمْ مَنْ خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ وَأَنْزَلَ لَكُمْ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً فَأَنْبَتْنَا بِهِ حَدَائِقَ ذَاتَ بَهْجَةٍ مَا كَانَ لَكُمْ أَنْ تُنْبِتُوا شَجَرَهَا أَئِلَهٌ مَعَ اللَّهِ بَلْ هُمْ قَوْمٌ يَعْدِلُونَ

“Say ‘Praise be to Allah, and peace upon His servants whom He has chosen. Is Allah better or what they associate with Him? Is it not He who created the heavens and the earth, and sent down for you rain from the sky, causing to grow thereby gardens of joyful beauty, which you could not otherwise have grown the trees thereof? Is there a deity with Allah?’ But they are a people who ascribe equals to Him.” (27: 59-60) After mentioning a sentence about His signs in creation, Allah said, {أَئِلَهٌ مَعَ اللَّهِ} “Is there a deity with Allah” to show that the polytheists only denied the Monotheism of Divinity and Worship, and not the Monotheism of His Lordship. Nevertheless, there were some among them that associated partners with Him in His Lordship also as we will explain later, Insha-Allah (God willing)

In summary, Allah proves that those who deny His right to Divinity and Worship are wrong by referring to their acknowledgement of His Lordship, and uses this against them. Would He leave them useless without purpose, without commanding them and prohibiting them, without reward or punishment? The Sovereign Lord and Master commands and prohibits, gives and refuses to give, benefits and harms, rewards and punishes as He will in His domain and kingdom.

[The words “al-Rabb;” (الرب) “al-Malik;” (الملك) and “al-Ilah” (الإله)]

Man’s supplication for refuge has been mentioned in the two last chapters of the Qur`an -Surat-an-Nass and Surat-al-Falaq- by the three Beautiful Names of Allah: “ar-Rabb;”  “al-Malik;” and “al-Ilah.” When Allah said: { قُلْ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ النَّاسِ} “Say: I seek refuge in the Lord of mankind.” (114:1), this affirms that Allah is their Creator and Originator. It might be then asked: When He created them, did He command them anything, make them responsible for anything, or forbid them from anything? It is answered: Yes indeed! Then Allah said (in answer): { مَلِكِ النَّاس} “The Sovereign of mankind?” (114:2) Thus, He affirms the creation and the command, (as Allah said):

{ أَلَا لَهُ الْخَلْقُ وَالْأَمْرُ } “His is the creation and the command.” (7:54) And when this was asked, it follows naturally to also ask: If He is the Lord, Creator, and Sovereign who gave responsibility, is He also the beloved and sought after, so that this is the purpose of creation?  So Allah answered this saying: {إِلَهِ النَّاسِ} “The God of mankind.” (114:3) This means that He is the One Whom they worship and love. Allah is the only one to whom the responsible servant, the creature, and the worshiper directs himself. Therefore, the right of divinity and worship came as the final result and as the purpose of creation: what preceded prepared the way and introduced it. [5]

[1] The word “Rabb” includes the meanings of creation, sovereignty, dominion, ownership, mastery, ruling, legislating, judging, sustenance, providing, nurturing, raising and bringing up. When attributed to Allah Most Exhaled, His Absolute Lordship and Divinity necessitates perfection in all of the above.  A person may be a Rabb in a limited sense like “Rabb-al-Bait” as the Owner, Master and ‘Lord’ of the house, and Rabbat-al-Bait, lady of the house, landlady, and/or housewife.

[2] Al-Ilahiyyah and al-Uluhiyyah are two verbal nouns of the same root and are one and have the same in meaning; refer to glossary.

[3] Abu Nu’aim and Ibn Habban report that A`ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, wrote: “To Mu’awiyyah: peace be upon you. Proceeding: I heard from the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessing be upon him: “Whoever seeks the pleasure of Allah by the anger of the people, then Allah will suffice him from the need of them, and whoever seeks the pleasure of the people by the anger of Allah, then Allah will entrust him to the people.” It is reported that Ali ibn Abi Talib said, may Allah be pleased with him: “The believer only fears (the evil of) sin, and hopes (for the good) from Allah.”  Love, hate, fear, hope anger, etc, should be directed only to those that deserve them.  Allah always deserves our love, fear, and hope and never deserves our hate and anger. The cause of evil is the consequences of the sin, ignorance, injustice and disobedience, perpetrated by others and by our own selves.

[4] These Qur`anic verses should be read in their context for their full import since Islamic scholars often abbreviate them for the sake of brevity and concentration and they expect the reader to follow out the extension of the meanings. Allah the Exalted said:

قُلْ أَغَيْرَ اللَّهِ أَتَّخِذُ وَلِيًّا فَاطِرِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَهُوَ يُطْعِمُ وَلَا يُطْعَمُ قُلْ إِنِّي أُمِرْتُ أَنْ أَكُونَ أَوَّلَ مَنْ أَسْلَمَ

وَلَا تَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ

“Say, ‘Is it other than Allah I should take as a Wali (ally and protector) Creator of the heavens and the earth, while it is He who feeds and is not fed?” Say, “Indeed, I have been commanded to be the first who submit and (am commanded) ‘Do not ever be of the polytheists.’”  (6:14)

And He said:

أَفَغَيْرَ اللَّهِ أَبْتَغِي حَكَمًا وَهُوَ الَّذِي أَنْزَلَ إِلَيْكُمُ الْكِتَابَ مُفَصَّلًا وَالَّذِينَ آَتَيْنَاهُمُ الْكِتَابَ يَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّهُ مُنَزَّلٌ

مِنْ رَبِّكَ بِالْحَقِّ فَلَا تَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْمُمْتَرِينَ

“Say ‘is it other than Allah I should seek as Hakam (ruler, legislator, judge) while it is He who has revealed to you the Book explained in detail?’ And those to whom We gave the Scriptures know that is sent down from your Lord in truth, so never be among the doubters.” (6:114)

And He said:

قُلْ أَغَيْرَ اللَّهِ أَبْغِي رَبًّا وَهُوَ رَبُّ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَلَا تَكْسِبُ كُلُّ نَفْسٍ إِلَّا عَلَيْهَا وَلَا تَزِرُ وَازِرَةٌ وِزْرَ أُخْرَى

ثُمَّ إِلَى رَبِّكُمْ مَرْجِعُكُمْ فَيُنَبِّئُكُمْ بِمَا كُنْتُمْ فِيهِ تَخْتَلِفُونَ

“Say, Is it other than Allah I should desire as a Rabb (Lord) while He is the Lord of all things?  And every soul earns not except against itself, and no bearer of burdens will bear the burden of another.  Then to your Lord is your return, and He will inform you concerning that over which you used to differ.” (6:164)

And as Moses peace be upon him said to the sons of Israel:

قَالَ أَغَيْرَ اللَّهِ أَبْغِيكُمْ إِلَهًا وَهُوَ فَضَّلَكُمْ عَلَى الْعَالَمِينَ

“He said: ‘Is it other than Allah I should desire for you as an Ilah (God) while He has preferred you over the worlds?’” (7:140) Man has only one protector, judge, Lord and God, and should ask and seek aid, guidance and laws from no one other than Allah, just as he should only direct worship, adoration and glorification to Allah. To intentionally rule by other than what Allah has revealed, to take the disbelievers as allies and friends, and to worship the graves taking the deceased as lords, are prevalent forms of apostasy from Islam in these latter centuries.

[5] This sequence here is in the final chapter of the Qur`an, Surat-an-Nass, wherein the final indication is towards monotheism of divinity and worship. In the Fatihah, the first chapter of the Qur`an, the first words are: { الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ * الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ * مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ} “All praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds.  Most Beneficent in Mercy, Most Merciful.  Sovereign Judge on the Day of Judgment…” This begins with mentioning “Al-Hamdu lillah,” which is an indication of monotheism of divinity and worship. Then the sequence in Fatihah is similar to Surat-an-Naas in that the Attributes of Allah’s Lordship are evidences leading to the result mentioned in the central verse explaining the monotheism of divinity and worship: “You alone do we worship and from You alone do we seek aid.”  People are thereafter divided into the three groups: the blessed, for those who known and practice in deed the monotheism of divinity and worship; the accursed by wrath, for those who know but arrogantly disobey to practice monotheism of divinity and worship, and the astray for those who do not properly know the monotheism of divinity and worship, even if their intentions for good deeds are good. Those without knowledge or good intention are not even mentioned in degradation of their depravity. It is noted that the Arabs by custom began and ended any important speech with the most vital point: monotheism is indeed the most important point of the Qur`an, and the central principle of all Islam.  Refer also to footnote (9).



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