On al-Khalafa and al-Khulafa (Caliphate)

 

 

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين والصلاة والسلام  على رسوله المصطفى الأمين

وآ له وصحبه ومن أتبعهم بإحسان إلى يوم الدين

 

In the name of Allah Most Beneficent Most Merciful

All praise is for Allah the Exalted and may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon His Messenger Muhammad and his family and companions and all those who follow them and their way until the Day of Resurrection

On al-Khalafa and al-Khulafa (Caliphate)

All Muslims belief that the best government after the Prophet was the time of the Rightly guided Leaders for as Irbaad ibn Sariyah, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said in a narration:

وعن العرباض بن سارية قال : وعظنا رسول الله موعظة وجلت منها القلوب وذرفت منها العيون فقلنا : يا رسول الله كأنها موعظة مودع فأوصنا . قال : «أوصيكم بتقوى الله عز وجل والسمع والطاعة وإن تأمر عليكم عبد فإنه من يعش منكم فسيرى اختلافاً كثيراً فعليكم بسنتي وسنة الخلفاء الراشدين المهديين عضوا عليها بالنواجذ وإياكم ومحدثات الأمور فإن كل بدعة ضلالة»

“The Messenger, peace and blessing be upon him, gave an eloquent sermon by which our hearts fluttered and tears flowed from our eyes, so we said to him, ‘O Messenger of Allah as if this is the final sermon so give us a final instruction.’ He said: “I instruct you to fear Allah and hearing and obeying even if a slave becomes your leader, for indeed whoever among you lives will see much disagreement so adhere to my Sunnah and the Sunnah of the rightly guided, correctly directed Caliphs, adhering to it with the firm bite of your molar teeth, and beware of the invented affairs since every Bid’ah is misguidance.”   Reported by Abu Da`ud, 4/201, no. 4707, at-Tirmidthi 5/44, no.2676, and Ibn Mahad 1/15-16, no. 42- 4 and Ahmad 4/46-47, and verified as authentic by al-Albani in Sahih al-Jame’ 1/782 no.7819.

And the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him,  said:
( إنه لم يكن نبي قبلي إلا كان حقا عليه أن يدل أمته على خير ما يعلمه لهم وينذرهم شر ما يعلمه لهم وإن أمتكم هذه جعل عافيتها في أولها وسيصيب آخرها بلاء وأمور تنكرونها وتجيء فتنة فيرقق بعضها بعضها وتجيء الفتنة فيقول المؤمن هذه مهلكتي ثم تنكشف وتجيء الفتنة فيقول المؤمن هذه هذه فمن أحب أن يزحزح عن النار ويدخل الجنة فلتأته منيته وهو يؤمن بالله واليوم الآخر وليأت إلى الناس الي يحب أن يؤتى إليه ومن بايع إماما فأعطاه صفقة يده وثمرة قلبه فليطعه إن استطاع فإن جاء آخر ينازعه فاضربوا عنق الآخر ) فدنوت منه فقلت أنشدك الله آنت سمعت هذا من رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ؟ فأهوى إلى أذنيه وقلبه بيديه وقال سمعته أذناي ووعاه قلبي فقلت له هذا ابن عمك معاوية يأمرنا أن نأكل أموالنا بيننا بالباطل ونقتل أنفسنا والله يقول { يا أيها الذين آمنوا لا تأكلوا أموالكم بينكم بالباطل إلا أن تكون تجارة عن تراض منكم ولا تقتلوا أنفسكم إن الله كان بكم رحيما } [ 4 / النساء / 29 ] قال فسكت ساعة ثم قال أطعه في طاعة الله واعصه في معصية الله

“It was the duty of every Prophet that has gone before me to guide his followers to what he knew was good for them and to warn them against what he knew was evil for them.  This Ummah (nation) of yours has its days of safety and peace in the beginning but in the latter time of its existence it will be afflicted with trials and with things that you will rebuke. A trial will come and you will make each other as insignificance (or enslave each other). A trial will come and the believer would say: ‘This will bring my destruction.’ Then it (the trial) will be lifted. Another trial will come and the believer would say: This one, this one (will bring my destruction). Whoever wishes to be delivered from the fire and to enter the Paradise should die with faith in Allah and the Last Day, and he should treat the people as he wishes to be treated by them. He who swears allegiance to an Imam  (Leader) and gives him the pledge of his hand and the sincerity of his heart, must obey him to the best of his capacity. If another man comes forward (as the claimant to Caliphate), disputing his authority, they (the Muslims) should strike the neck of the latter.” The narrator Abdur- Rahman ibn. Abd Rabb al-Ka’ba said: I came close to him (Abdullah ibn Amru ibn al-Aas) and said to him: Can you say on oath that you heard it from the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him? He pointed with his hands to his ears and his heart and said: My ears heard it and my mind retained it. I said to him: This cousin of yours, Mu’awiyah, he orders us to consume each others wealth among ourselves unjustly, and to kill one another, whereas Allah says: ‘O you who believe, do not consume your wealth among yourselves unjustly, unless it be in trade based on mutual agreement, and do not kill yourselves. Verily, God is Most Merciful to you’. On hearing this Abdullah ibn Amru ibn al-Aas kept quiet for a while and then said: ‘Obey him in obedient to God; and disobey him in disobedience to God.” Reported by  Muslim (Book 20, Number 4546), Ahmad, an-Nasa`e, Ibn Majah and others

Hudthaifah ibn al-Yaman, may Allah be pleased with him, reported that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

تكون النبوة ما شاء الله أن تكون ثم يرفعها إذا شاء أن يرفعها ثم تكون خلافة على منهاج النبوة فتكون ما شاء الله أن تكون ثم يرفعها إذا شاء أن يرفعها ثم تكون ملكاً عاضاً ما شاء الله أن تكون ثم يرفعها إذا شاء أن يرفعها ثم تكون ملكاً جبرياً فتكون ما شاء الله أن تكون ثم يرفعها إذا شاء أن يرفعها ثم تكون خلافة على منهاج النبوة ثم سكت

“Prophethood will remain with you for as long as Allah wills it to remain, then He will lift it if He decided to lift it. Then there will be a Caliphate that will follow the way of Prophethood remaining with you for as long as Allah wills it to remain. Then He will lift it if He decided to lift it. Afterwards, there will be strongly held monarchy and it will remain with you for as long as Allah wills it to remain. Then, there will be a reign of tyrannical rule and it will remain for as long as Allah wills it to remain. Then, Allah will lift it if He decided to lift it. Then, there will be a Caliphate that will follow the way of Prophethood.” Then he stopped speaking.” Reported by Ahmad and verified by al-Albani as reliable in as-Silsilah as-Sahihah 1/8 #5.

Here we have four terms of political systems: “Prophethood  (النبوة), Caliphate that will follow the way of Prophethood (خلافة على منهاج النبوة), strongly held monarchy (ملكاً عاضاً), and tyrannical rule (ملكاً جبرياً).  Of course no one after the Prophet himself can aspire to “Prophethood” and every faithful Muslim says that that “Caliphate that will follow the way of Prophethood” was the ideal system after him, peace and blessings be upon him.

The exact period of time that Caliphate that followed the way of Prophethood lasted has been specified by a narration of Safeenah may Allah be pleased with him when he narrated that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

(خلافة النبوة ثلاثون سنة ثم يؤتي الله الملك من يشاء )

“The Caliphate of Prophethood will remain in my nation after me for thirty years. Then Allah will give the kingdomship to whomever He wishes.”  Reported by Ahmad, at-Tirmidthi and others, and see Sahih Al-Jami’as-Saghir no. 3341.

In a narration of Thauban, may Allah be pleased with him, he said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

” إن الله تعالى زوى لي الأرض فرأيت مشارقها ومغاربها وإن ملك أمتي سيبلغ ما زوي لي منها وأعطيت الكنزين الأحمر والأبيض وإني سألت ربي لأمتي أن لا يهلكها بسنة بعامة ولا يسلط عليهم عدوا من سوى أنفسهم فيستبيح بيضتهم وإن ربي قال لي يا محمد إني إذا قضيت قضاء فإنه لا يرد ولا أهلكهم بسنة بعامة ولا أسلط عليهم عدوا من سوى أنفسهم فيستبيح بيضتهم ولو اجتمع عليهم من بين أقطارها أو قال بأقطارها حتى يكون بعضهم يهلك بعضا وحتى يكون بعضهم يسبي بعضا وإنما أخاف على أمتي الأئمة المضلين وإذا وضع السيف في أمتي لم يرفع عنها إلى يوم القيامة ولا تقوم الساعة حتى تلحق قبائل من أمتي بالمشركين وحتى تعبد قبائل من أمتي الأوثان وإنه سيكون في أمتي كذابون ثلاثون كلهم يزعم أنه نبي وأنا خاتم النبيين لا نبي بعدي ولا تزال طائفة من أمتي على الحق لايضرهم من خالفهم حتى يأتي أمر الله تعالى ” .

“Verily Allah has shown me the east and the west of the earth and the domination (or kingdom) of my nation will reach what I saw of it, and I have been given the red and white treasures. I asked my Lord that my nation not be devastated by general affliction (like famine) or by the external enemy other than themselves which will overtake what is most precious, and my Lord said, ‘O Muhammad If I give a decree it cannot be repelled, and I have decreed that your nation will not be devastated by general affliction or by the external enemy other than themselves which will overtake what is most precious even if they come from all corners of the earth, then some of them will destroy the others and take captives.’ I am most fearful of misguided leaders and if the sword is drawn once in my nation then it will never return to the sheath until the Day of Resurrection. The Hour (of the Day of Resurrection) will not come until some of my nation go over to the polytheists and some tribes of my nation worship the idols, and there will be thirty great liars in my nation each one claiming to be a prophet whereas I am the final and last of the prophets and there is no prophet after me. There will not cease to be a group of my nation on the truth and those that oppose them will not harm them until the decisive command of Allah comes with finality.” Reported by Abu Da`ud, Ahmad and Ibn Habbaan and others, and verified as authentic by Arana`ut and al-Albani in Sahih al-Jame’ as-Sagheer #1773

And the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said as reported by al-Bukhari:

وعن حذيفة رضي الله عنه قال: كان الناس يسألون رسول الله صلّى الله عليه وسلّم عن الخير، وكنت أسأله عن الشر مخافة أن يدركني، فقلت يا رسول الله، إنا كنا في جاهلية وشر فجاءنا الله بهذا الخير فهل بعد هذا الخير من شر؟ قال: “نعم” فقلت: هل بعد ذلك الشر من خير؟ قال: فقلت: وما دَخَنُهُ؟ قال: ”قوم يستنون بغير سنتي، ويهدون بغي هديي تعرف منهم وتنكر“ فقلت: هل بعد ذلك الخير من شر؟ قال: ”نعم، دعاة على أبواب جهنم من أجابهم إليها قذفوه فيها“ فقلت: يا رسول الله، صفهم لنا، قال: ”نعم: قوم من جلدتنا، يتكلمون بألسنتنا“، قلت: يا رسول الله، فما ترى إن أدركني ذلك؟ قال: ”تلزم جماعة المسلمين وإيمامهم“ فقلت: فإن لم تكن لهم جماعة ولا إمام؟ قال: ”فاعتزل تلك الفرق كلها، ولو أن تعض على أصل شجرة حتى يدركك الموت وأنت على ذلك

“People used to ask the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, about the good times, but I used to ask him about bad times fearing that they may overtake me. I said, O Messenger of Allah, we were in the midst of ignorance and evil and then God brought us this good (time through Islam), so is there any bad time after this good one?’ He said, ‘Yes.’ I asked, ‘Will there be a good time again after that bad time?’ He said, ‘Yes, but therein will be a hidden evil.’ I asked, ‘What will be that hidden evil?’  He said, People who will adopt ways other than mine and seek guidance other than my guidance. You will know good points as well as bad points.’ I asked, ‘Will there be a bad time after this good one?’ He said, ‘Yes, when there will be people calling to the gates of Hellfire, and whosoever responds to their call will be cast into the Hellfire.’ I said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, describe them for us”. He said, ‘All right: they will be a people having the same complexion as ours and speaking our language.’ I said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, what do you suggest I do if I happen to live in their time?’ He said, ‘You should adhere to the main body of the Muslims and their leader.’ I said, ‘And if they have no (such thing as the) main body of the Muslims and there is no leader?’ He said, ‘Then separate yourself from all these factions and even though you may have to eat the roots of trees (to avoid them) until death comes to you, remain firmly in this state.”

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