Basic Arabic Notes (1)

 

 

 

Basic Arabic Notes (1)

 

Assalaam alaikum

Arrangements by the Arabic Language Instructor Abu Salman: 

For additional resources, links, see

www.abusalman.com

Scroll to > Resource > Arabic

Below are some essential introductory notes Arabic language lessons: please review them completely, with exercises and practices in the book sometimes called:

Madeenah Book

And the book’s full name is as follows:

دروس اللغة العربية لغير الناطقين بها

“Lessons in Arabic Language for non-Arabic speakers ”

by Dr V. Abdur-Raheem of Islamic University in Madinah,  Saudi Arabia ]

This book and additional translation and helping aids can be downloaded free (and legal) in an online ebook form (PDF), and the famous printed book comes in various versions.

Some places to download the book along with Other Useful Resources

http://www.lqtoronto.com/downloads.html  

http://www.kalamullah.com/learning-arabic.html 

http://abdurrahman.org

For some more useful links on learning the Arabic Language, please see my personal blog at:

www.abusalman.com

And specifically at this link:

https://abusalmandeyauddeeneberle.wordpress.com/for-learning-the-arabic-language/

and

Note that herein are mentioned only some of the major points studied and reviewed.

 

-1-Words of the Arabic language are one of three kinds:

اسم   = Ism = Nown

فعل  = Fe’al = Verb

حرف = Harf = Particle

-2-

 

المعرفة والنكرة (أل التعريف أو التنوين)

 

 

Definite article: (ال ) (“the”): refers to a specific object.

Indefinite word form has the tanween (double vowel), refers to any object of that word, unspecific.

As in the examples:

 

مَسْجِدٌ :الْـمَسْجِدُ

كِتَابٌ : الكتابُ

قلمٌ: الْقَلَمُ

بيتٌ  : اَلْبَيْتُ

A mosque – 

The  mosque 

 

  A book –

 

The book

A pen

 

The pen

A house –

 

The house

 

 

-3-

 

The useful sentence (الْجُمْلَةُ  المُفيدَة) must have complete meaning  (i.e. make complete sense).

 

الْجُمْلَةُ المُفيدَةُ مكونةٌ من كلمات تفيد معناً تاماً

[Translation: A useful sentence consists of words that benefit with a complete meaning)

 

 

-4-

Sentences are either noun or verb, and we started with noun:

Noun sentences must have a Subject + a Predicate (news, info)

The Nominal Sentence (Al Jumla tul Ismiya)

[i.e. starts with an noun (ism)

الْجُمْلَةُ الإسْمِيَّةُ

Mubtada (مبتدأ), Subject (what starts the sentence)

Khabr ( خبر), news about the subject (i.e. what completes the sentence with a useful meaning; with information about the subject)

 

 

 

Examples

 

In detail:

 

Mubtada (مبتدأ) = الْقَلَمُ

Khabr ( خبر) = مَكْسُوْرٌ

 

 

Mubtada (مبتدأ) = الْبَابُ

Khabr ( خبر) = مَفْتُوْحٌ

 

 

The boy is sitting and the teacher is standing.

 

اَلْوَلَدُ جَالِسٌ، وَالْمُدَرَّسُ وَاقِفٌ

 

Mubtada (مبتدأ) = اَلْوَلَدُ ، وَالْمُدَرَّسُ

Khabr ( خبر) =  جَالِسٌ، وَ وَاقِفٌ

[note ( وَ ) means the conjunction “and” and we have two nominal sentences here, with a conjunct binding them together]

To repeat this with some more examples:

 

 

اَلْجُمْلَة ُالإِسْمِيَّة ُ

 

 

 

اَلْمَسْجِدُ  قَرِيْبٌ      The mosque is near.

 

 

 

                                         اَلْمُبْتَدَأ        اَلْخَبَرُ

 

The Basic structure of a simple nominal sentence (al-Jumlat-ul-Ismiyya)   (الْجُمْلَةُ الإسْمِيَّةُ) is to have

first the “Mubtada” (مبتدأ )

and then the “Khabr” (خبر ),  

for example:

 

البيتُ كبيرٌ

البستانُ جميلٌ

النظارةُ نظيفةٌ

الرجلُ في المسجدِ يقْرَأُ القرآنَ

NOTE

(*) اَلْمُبْتَدَأ is مَرْفُوْعٌ (marfoo’) meaning it takes a dhammah (if definite) or dhammataan on the last letter of the ism.

 (**) اَلْخَبَرُ in its أصْلٌ (origin) is نَكِرَةٌ (indefinite).

(***) اَلْخَبَرُ is مَرْفُوْعٌ (marfoo’) meaning it takes a dhammah or dhammataan on the last letter of the ism.

 

-5-

حروف الشمسية والقمرية

Huruf ash Shamsiyah wal Qamariyyah

 

-6-

Lesson four

حرف الجر والمجرور

Harf al Jarr wal Majroor

 

حَرْفُ الْجَرِّ (1)  is a Letter/Particle that enters upon an ism only.

مُحَمَّدٌ فِيْ الْبَيْتِ      Muhammad is in the house

 

Note: the lingual state of “Jarr” is sometimes called “Khfad” as in the book called “Ajroomiyyah” and others

 

-7-

Lesson five

المضاف و المضاف إليه

 

Mudaf wa Mudaf ilaihi

 

 

 

 

 

                                كِتَابُ                                 مُحَمَّدٍ

 

 

 

الْمُضَافُ إِلَيِهِ

اَلْمُضَافُ

دَائمًا مَجْرُوْرٌ – Always

Majroor                           

لا يُنَوِّنُ – Does not accept tanween

 

لا يَقبَلُ الْ – Does not accept alif laam

 

Translates as possessive construction (i.e. indicting ownership, possession, etc)

“the book of Muhammad” or “Muhammad’s book”

 

-8-

Hamzat al-Qat’e wa Hamzatal Wasl

-9-

أَسْمَاءُ الإِشَارَةِ nouns of indication

They all are مَعْرِفَة ٌ definite.

 

ذَلِكَ is pronounced ذَالِكَ but is written without the alif.

 

Some of the grammarians say that the أَسْمَاءُ الإِشَارَةِ

have three levels ثلاثُ مَرَاتِبَ :

هَذَا – لِلقَرِيْبِ         For the near/close meaning “this”

ذَلِكَ- لِلْبَعِيْدِ               For the far/distant meaning “that”

ذَاكَ- لِلْوَسْطِ           For the middle between near and far

أسْمَاءُ الإِشَارَةِ لِلْقَرِيْبِ

أسْمَاءُ الإِشَارَةِ لِلْبَعِيْدِ

هَذَا مُحَمَّدٌ

ذَلِكَحَامِدٌ

هَذِهِ آمِنَة ُ

تِلْكَزَيْنَبُ

 

 

-10-

Introduction to”I’rab”

AlI’rab       —-     اَلإعْرَابُ

التَّعْرِيْفُ:

الإِعْرَابُ هُوَ: تَغْيِيْرُ أَوَاخِرِ الْكَلِمِ لاِخْتِلافِ الْعَوَامِلِ الدَّاخِلَةِ عَلَيْهَا لَفْظاً أَوْ تَقدِيْراً.

The Definition:

The I’rab is: Changing of the endings of the words because of the changing of the active elements entering upon them (the change is) apparent or not-apparent.

 

حَالاتُ الإِسْمِ

The cases of the ism

عَلامَاتُ الإِعْرَابِ الأصْلِيَّة ُ

The origin signs of ‘Iraab

أَنْوَاعُ الإِعْرَابِ

Types of ‘Iraab

مَرْفُوْعٌ

ٌ– /-ُ

اَلرَّفْعُ

مَنْصُوْبٌ

/ َ

اَلنَّصْبُ

مَجْرُوْرٌ

ٍ– / ِ

اَلْجَرُّ

 

The above definition for I’rab mentions the ending of words changing what is meant by this is the changing of vowel markings that are on the end, or on the last letter of a word.  We will explain “apparent or not-apparent” later on not here.

The table above illustrates types of I’rab and its origin signs.

الرَّفْعُ (ar-raf’u) is when the end or last letter of a word takes a dhammah or dhammataan   >              بَيْتٌ / الْبَيْتُ

 النَّصْبُ(an-nasbu) is when the end or last letter of a word takes a fatha or fathataan   >                بَيْتاً / الْبَيْتَ

الْجَرُّ (al-jarru) is when the end or last letter of a word takes a khasrah or khasrataan   >                         بَيْتٍ / الْبَيْتِ

Also we can say that when a noun (ism) is:

in the state of الرَّفْعُ (ar-raf’u) it is called مَرْفُوْعٌ (marfoo’).

in the state of النَّصْبُ (an-nasbu) it is called مَنْصُوْبٌ  mansoob).

in the state of الْجَرُّ (al-jarru) it is called مَجْرُوْرٌ (majroor)

 

-11-

We started a few examples of  the basic structure of simple verbal sentences:

al-Jumlat-ul-Fe’liyya

الْجُمْلَةُ الْفِعْلِيَّةُ

Note verbs are three basic tenses:

We will start with the past tense:

 

 

 

التَّعْرِيْفُ: The Definition

الفِعْلُ الْمَاضِيْ- مَا دَلَّ عَلَى حَدَثٍ وَقَعَ فِيْ الزَّمَانِ الَّذِيْ قَبْلَ زَمَانِ التَّكَلُّمِ.

The Past Verb-that which indicates upon an event/happening taking place in the time which is before the time of speaking/conversation.

أيْنَ عَبَّاسٌ؟              Where is Abbaas?

ذَهَبَ   إلى المُديرِِ     He went to the head teacher       

For every action we have a doer or the one who performs the action.  In Arabic the doer of the action is called اَلْفَاعَلُ (al-faa’il).

التَّعْرِيْفُ:The Definition

اَلْفَاعِلُ هُوَ الإِسْمُ الْمَرْفُوْعُ الْمَذْكُوْرُ قَبْلَهُ فِعْلُهُ.

اَلْفَاعِلُ (the Doer) is an ism which is الْمَرْفُوْعُ takes dhammah or dhammataan on the last letter and mentioned before it is its فِعْلٌ verb.

Example:

ذَهَبَ حَامِدٌ إِلَى الْمَسْجِدِ   Haamid went to the mosque

                 فِعْلُ   مَاضٍ       الْفَاعِلُ        مَجْرُوْرٌ

                                [  مَرْفُوْعٌ ]

You will find that اَلْفَاعِلُ is not always apparent after the verb ذَهَبَ

ذَهَبَ إِلَى الْمَسْجِدِ   He went to the mosque

That is because in the past-tense verbs for the Male Absent if اَلْفَاعِلُ is not apparent then the ضَمِيْرٌ (pronoun) ‘هُوَ’ (He) will be اَلْفَاعِلُAnd this dhameer is known as اَلضَّمِيْرُ الْمُسْتَتِرُ (The Hidden pronoun [Dhameer]), thus you will not see it in writing or pronounce it even though it is there and understood.

 

أيْنَ مُحَمَّدٌ؟   Where is Muhammad?          

 

خَرَجَ  مِنَ الْمَسْجِدِ He left from the mosque           

Another important point is the

Especially when adding an object (maf’ool) ((مفعول به) ) , which the action (fe’il : verb) ( فعل) of the “Doer” (faa`il) (اَلْفَاعِلُ ) falls upon.

As explained below:

Verbs must have a subject or a “doer” (الْفَاعِلُ) whether known or unknown. 

Verbs generally are transitive (they take an object) or intransitive (they do NOT take an object). Object is (maf’ool) ((مفعول به)

In Arabic,

transitive (take an object) (متعدي)

intransitive verbs (غيرمتعدي)

Some examples of Arabic sentences with intransitive verbs (غيرمتعدي) [i.e that do NOT take an object], are as follows:

خرج المديرُ

دخل طالبٌ

ذَهَبَ الطالبُ إلى السوقِ

جاءَ زيدٌ و جَلَسَ على الأرضِ

 

Format is first, the verb “Fe’l” (فعل), then the “doer” of the verb Faa’il (فاعل), and of course more information can be added to sentence like in the last two example.

 

For verbs that are transitive (take an object) (متعدي) then there is an addition point to consider, which is the thing upon which the verb acts, meaning what the action is “done upon,”  the “Maf’ool bihi” (مفعول به) , by the doer (fa’il) of the action.   

Thus if the verb is a transitive verb [called muta’adi (متعدي)] meaning a verb which takes an object, then the format is as follows, wherein the Fa’il is marfu (i.e. has dumma) and the maf’uul bihi is Mansoob (i.e. has fatha)  

فعل  +  فاعل + مفعول به

ضَرَبَ الولدُ الكرةَ

ضَرَبَ ولدٌ الكرةَ

ضَرَبَ الولدُ كرةً

ضَرَبَ ولدٌ كرةً

Note the four possibilities with definite particle (alif lam) and indefinite (tanween):

أَكَلَ الذئبُ الخروفَ

أَكَلَ ذئبٌ الخروفَ

أَكَلَ الذئبُ خروفاً

أَكَلَ ذئبٌ خروفاً

كَتَبَ الطالبُ درساً

كَتَبَتْ الطالبةُ الدرسَ

And so on and on with so many other examples

> Proceed to  Basic Arabic Notes (2)

 

3 Responses to Basic Arabic Notes (1)

  1. Aiman says:

    This was really helpful- thank you sooo much!!!

  2. Shukran Brother/Sister.

    This is an amazing piece of article for the knowledge seekers

  3. Khaleel says:

    JazakAllah khair, would love for you to bring in more advance summary notes like these. Shukran.

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