A pillar of Tauheed is Rejecting Taaghoot and avoiding it: AS

“A pillar of Tauheed is Rejecting Taaghoot and avoiding it”

Or “Taaghoot & Rejecting Tawaagheet

ركن التوحيد هو الكفر بالطاغوت واجتنابه

اوالطاغوت والكفر بالطواغيت

Compiled and written by

Abu Salman Deya ud-Deen Eberle

(who seeks the Mercy of Allah His Gracious Lord)

كتبه الفقير الى مغفرة ربه

أبو ســلمان ضياء الدين ابرلي

(80 pages)  [ this page is HERE

This booklet explains Tauheed (sometimes transliterated as tawheed, tauhid, etc, Islamic monotheism). It concentrates on the “negative” pillar of Tauheed, which is to reject all forms of Shirk (idolatry, polytheism, associating partners with Allah) and all Tawaagheet (those that are worshipped other than Allah and are pleased with that worship). The “positive” pillar is to sincerely worship Allah in all the forms of worship He commanded by revelation to His Messengers, the final being Muhammad ibn Abdullah, may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him.  Taaghoot is explained in detail and proven to include all of the following: Satan, his followers the devils, idols, those that call to and propagate idol worship, sorcerers, fortunetellers and soothsayers, man-made laws, the legislators of those laws, judges and executors of the man-made laws, tyrannical rulers who intentionally and consistently rule and judge by whim against Allah’s law, major innovation in religion that constitutes Kufr Akbar (greater disbelief) and Shirk (polytheism, idolatry) and their main propagators, and all books, constitutions, religions, philosophies, ideologies, organizations, systems and institutions that systemize and institutionalize Kufr and Shirk and their main propagators and defenders.  The booklet will, by the Aid and Grace of Allah, prove the points of investigation by reference to the scriptures and texts of the Qur’an (the word of Allah, the Almighty) and to the Sunnah (the “way” and the words and practices of the Prophet — peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) as the sources of the Shari’ah (Islamic law). We will seek aid in understanding the Qur’an and Sunnah by reference to the sayings of the Sahabah (companions) and the eminent Ulama’a (scholars and jurists), who we collectively call the Salaf-as-Salih (pious predecessors).


Table of Contents
  • Foreword
  • Introduction
  • Definition in Islamic context
  • General introduction of Tauheed and its relationship to the rejection of Taaghoot
  • Taaghoot  in the Qur`an
  • Taaghoot in the Sunnah
  • Taaghoot in the sayings of the Ulama’a (scholars)
  • Types of Taaghoot and Classification
  • The classification of Taaghoot and its relationship to the classification of Deen
  • Relationship between Taaghoot and various forms of Shirk
  • Essentials of Kufr-bit-Taaghoot (Rejection of Taaghoot)
  • Prophet Ibraheem as a role model, may Allah’s peace be upon him
  • Examples of Tawaagheet
  • The special case of Hajjaj ibn Yusuf ath-Thaqafi and controversies about whether he is a Taaghoot or not
  • Conclusion and Summary
  • Appendixes
  • Index
  • Bibliography
  • Table of Contents

Forth coming (insha-Allah: God willing)

Excerpt pages

(Scroll down to bottom of page for footnotes)

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Description

This booklet explains Tauheed (sometimes transliterated as tawheed, tauhid, etc, Islamic monotheism). It concentrates on the “negative” pillar of Tauheed, which is to reject all forms of Shirk (idolatry, polytheism, associating partners with Allah) and all Tawaagheet (those that are worshipped other than Allah and are pleased with that worship). The “positive” pillar is to sincerely worship Allah in all the forms of worship He commanded by revelation to His Messengers, the final being Muhammad ibn Abdullah, may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him.  Taaghoot is explained in detail and proven to include all of the following: Satan, his followers the devils, idols, those that call to and propagate idol worship, sorcerers, fortunetellers and soothsayers, man-made laws, the legislators of those laws, judges and executors of the man-made laws, tyrannical rulers who intentionally and consistently rule and judge by whim against Allah’s law, major innovation in religion that constitutes Kufr Akbar (greater disbelief) and Shirk (polytheism, idolatry) and their main propagators, and all books, constitutions, religions, philosophies, ideologies, organizations, systems and institutions that systemize and institutionalize Kufr and Shirk and their main propagators and defenders.  The booklet will, by the Aid and Grace of Allah, prove the points of investigation by reference to the scriptures and texts of the Qur’an (the word of Allah, the Almighty) and to the Sunnah (the “way” and the words and practices of the Prophet — peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) as the sources of the Shari’ah (Islamic law). We will seek aid in understanding the Qur’an and Sunnah by reference to the sayings of the Sahabah (companions) and the eminent Ulama’a (scholars and jurists), who we collectively call the Salaf-as-Salih (pious predecessors).

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Excerpt pages 4-18

(Scroll down to bottom of page for footnotes)

Introduction

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين والصلاة والسلام على رسوله المصطفى الأمين

وعلى آ له وصحبه ومن أتبعهم بإحسان إلى يوم الدين

In the name of Allah Most Beneficent Most Merciful

All praise is for Allah the Exalted and may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon His Messenger Muhammad and his family and companions and all those who follow them until the Day of Resurrection

The origin of this work is from research conducted for an Arabic paper I wrote in 1998-9 CE entitled: [الكفر بالطاغوت واجتنابه ركن التوحيد] “Rejecting Taaghoot and avoiding it is a fundamental pillar of Tauheed.” My Qamari brother (from the Comoro Islands) Abdul-Bawana typed it all out, may Allah reward him and give him the best blessings in this life and in the hereafter. When I noticed the confusion surrounding the term Taaghoot and related subjects of Tauheed, Islam, Iman (Eemaan), Shirk and Kufr, and the extremely dangerous nature of certain misconceptions, especially for English speaking Muslims, I decided to arrange this English version.  Since some material from the Arabic version has been omitted, and other information and research materials have been included, it has become a new work.  I have decided to keep the references in the body of the work and refrain from footnotes to emphasize the sources and simplify reading for all audiences.

I have written this book as a Naseehah (sincere advice) to my fellow Muslims, as in the prophetic tradition:

الدِّينُ النَّصِيحَةُ قُلْنَا لِمَنْ قَالَ لِلَّهِ وَلِكِتَابِهِ وَلِرَسُولِهِ وَلِأَئِمَّةِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَعَامَّتِهِمْ

The Prophet of Allah said, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him: Religion is sincere advice. They asked to whom O Messenger of Allah. He said: To Allah, and His Messenger, and the leaders of the Muslims and general population of Muslims.” [Reported by Muslim]

Insha Allah (by Allah’s will), this work will illuminate the way for the believers, and will act as a thorn to strike the eyes, throats and hearts of the Tawaagheet and their worshippers, custodians, ministers, generals, foot soldiers, followers, activists, and allies.

For a scholarly study of this subject, usage of a certain amount of Arabic terminology is inevitable, and therefore we advise the reader to be patient in studying these terms and the related concepts.

I ask Allah to bless this effort, make it bear good fruit in this life, and place it in the scale of my accepted good deeds on the Day in which no one except Allah the Almighty and Exalted will rule supreme and judge – the Day that His Forgiveness, Mercy and Justice will be sought after by all creation.

Our supplications

May Allah guide us to the truth and forgive us our mistakes, forgetfulness, shortcomings and faults.  We supplicate Allah for ourselves and all our brother Muslims:

﴿ رَبَّنَا لاَ تُؤَاخِذْنَا إِ ن نَّسِينَا أَوْ أَخْطَأْنَا رَبَّنَا وَلاَ تَحْمِلْ عَلَيْنَا إِصْرًا كَمَا حَمَلْتَهُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِنَا رَبَّنَا وَلاَ تُحَمِّلْنَا مَا لاَ طَاقَةَ لَنَا بِهِ وَاعْفُ عَنَّا واغْفِرْ لَنَا وَارْحَمْنَآ أَنتَ مَوْلاَنَا فَانصُرْنَا عَلَى الْقَوْمِ الْكَافِرِينَ

“O our Lord, do not take us to task and punish us if we forget or we make a mistake: and do not burden us with binding obligations of the likes of that which you placed on those that were before us, and do not make us to bear that which we do not have the strength and ability to bear. Pardon us and forgive us (our sins) and have mercy upon us you are our Protector and Supporter and give us victory over the disbelievers” (al-Baqarah 2:286).

And we supplicate:

﴿ رَبَّنَا اغْفِرْ لَنَا وَلِإِخْوَانِنَا الَّذِينَ سَبَقُونَا بِالْإِيمَانِ وَلَا تَجْعَلْ فِي قُلُوبِنَا غِلًّا لِّلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا رَبَّنَا إِنَّكَ رَؤُوفٌ رَّحِيمٌ ﴾

“O our Lord forgive us and our brothers who have proceeded before us in faith and do not make any malice to be in our hearts for those that believe, O our Lord, verily You are the most Kind most Merciful”(al-Hashr 59:10)

أبو ســـــــلمان ضياء الدين ابرلي

Abu Salman Deya ud-Deen Eberle

abusalman102@gmail.com

abusalman102@yahoo.com

Arabic Lingual Root of the word Taaghoot

The linguistic root of the Arabic word Taaghoot (plural = Tawaagheet) is as follows:

ط غ ى طَغَى يَطْغى طَغْياً ويَطْغُو طُغْياناً فهو طاغ فهم طغاة وهوطاغية فهم طواغي وهوطاغوت وهم طواغيت

(taa ghain alif) tagha  yatghoo tughyaanan   ( wa aydan tagha yatghe); fa hua taaghin wa taghiyyah;  fa hum tughaat wa tawaaghee;  wa hua “taaghooot”wa hum “Tawaagheet.”

The root meaning is excessiveness, to exceed all proper bounds. A person or thing that takes on this trait can be called Taaghin or in an intensified form Taaghiyyah, the plural being Tughaat and Tawaaghee. Taaghoot (plural, Tawaagheet) is an intensified form of this word noun, and can be used for a person or thing as a singular, plural, masculine and/or feminine, as seen below in the lingual contexts of the Ayaat (verses) of the Qur`an (Book of Allah), and Hadeeth (traditions) of the Sunnah (Way) of the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him.

Definition in Islamic context

Man knows things, as it is said, by knowing about their opposites.  We will explain comprehensively this word Taaghoot keeping in mind that our major intention is to better understand and practice Tauheed. The word Taaghoot denotes a term comprehensively including all that has exceeded the bounds and is worshiped other than Allah, whether alive or non-living, on the condition that if it is a living being it is pleased with the false worship or is conspicuously quiet and does not reject and repudiate it (Yakfur bit-Taaghoot) which implies that one consents.  A Taaghoot has passed some extreme limit that distinguishes and defines Islam, Iman (or Eemaan, faith and belief) and Tauheed (Islamic monotheism) which takes one into the opposite of Iman, which is Kufr, (disbelief), and to the opposite of Tauheed, which is Shirk (polytheism, idolatry).

This condition “to be pleased with the false worship and not to reject it” is extremely important in order to avoid some common misconceptions and misdeeds. All the Prophets and Messengers of Allah, like Esa (Jesus), and the angels, and some very pious people, for example, are not Taaghoot even though they may be objects of worship for some of the ignorant masses, because they have rejected, rebuked and totally repudiated all false worship of those who worship them or anything else other than Allah.   The prophet Muhammad, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, has been taken as an object of worship by some who are ignorant even though it is known by all Muslims of sufficient knowledge that he expressly forbade that and cut off all pathways and corridors that lead to any exaggeration of his human status as a Messenger and Prophet of Allah who worships Allah only without any form of Shirk – idolatry, polytheism, and association of partners with Allah in worship.

Similarly the companion of the prophet Muhammad, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, Ali ibn Abi Taalib and his sons Hasan and Hussain, may Allah be pleased with them, even though they are objects of worship for many of the Shi’a sect, are not Taaghoot since they also rejected and rebuked the worship of other than Allah. Ali ibn Abi Taalib, may Allah be pleased with him, had even put to death those that came to him from the Ghulaat (extremists) of the Sabaa`iyyah (followers of Abdullah ibn Sabaa, the ringleader and initiator of extremist Shi’ism) and claimed that Ali was their Lord and God Himself incarnate (in the flesh), may Allah be exalted above any blasphemy.

Some who claim to be Muslims have ignorantly worshiped some famous leaders, scholars and so called saints. The true and the righteous ones are free and absolved from the deciet of their false worship for the above-mentioned reasons. Those who are called saints, holy men, scholars, chiefs, rulers and political leaders, may in fact themselves become Tawaagheet if they take for themselves – in intention, word or deed – traits and characteristics that are exclusively for Allah in His Ruboobiyyah (Lordship) and Uloohiyah (Divinity), and if they do not openly reject, rebuke and totally repudiate all those who direct worship, adoration, submission and absolute obedience to them in conflict with the worship, adoration, obedience and submission to Allah most Exalted, as will be explained with the necessary conditions and stipulations below.

The protectors, allies and callers to Taaghoot are the advisers, generals, foot soldiers, supporters, workers and activists in their governments and organizations, who willfully and intentionally support the system which promotes and protects the worship of the Taaghoot, with all its religious, economic, social, political, judicial, military and administrative appendages.  Those Muslims who live under or on the fringes of such a system are continually bombarded with temptations to fall into worshiping, seeking the legal rulings, and allying themselves with the Taaghoot. May Allah protect us from all such temptations and grant us the success of dying as believing Muslims never falling into Shirk and repenting from all our sins.

The condition above is very crucial to avoid saying anything demeaning about the Messengers of Allah and innocent believers and worshipers of Allah.  Without the condition one may take certain statements of the pious predecessors and misunderstand their intent. This is all the more likely since, as a student once asked, why can’t we consider Jesus to be Taaghoot, when we find in the widely distributed explanation of the Qur`an, as translated and explained by Dr. Muhsin Khan and Dr. Taqi ud-Deen Al-Hilali, may Allah have mercy on them, in the commentary of surat-al-Baqara verse 2:265:

“The word Taghut covers a wide range of meanings: it means anything that is worshiped other than the Real God (Allah), i.e. all the false deities. It may be satan, devils, idols, stonsa, stars, angels, humans, e.g. Messengers of Allah. Who are falsely worshiped and taken as taghut. Likewise saints, graves, rulers and leaders are falsely worshiped and wrongfully followed. Sometimes taghut means a false judge who gives a false judgment.”

The work before you will – by the Grace and Will of Allah – correct this mistake decisively, and explain that to be a Mu`min (believer) and a Muslim one must repudiate, renounce and avoid all Tawagheet in whatever shape and form, and one must obediently worship Allah as the Messengers have taught to the mankind. To call Jesus or any Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon all of them, a Taaghoot is a basic contradiction since Taaghoot means to go beyond the proper bounds.  Those who worship them falsely have definitely gone beyond the bounds and undoubtedly they have followed some Taaghoot who lead them to such false worship. Yet the Messengers themselves never committed any wrongdoing in this regard. It is a monstrous mistake, an ultimate ignorance, a blasphemous lie, and a degrading slander to claim that they did.  To call a Messenger of Allah a Taaghoot may even be – under certain conditions – an act of derision, contempt, and mockery of their special status and divine sanctity, which is an act of greater Kufr (disbelief) and Riddah (apostasy) from Islam.  Islamic Shari’ah (law) takes all precautions from anything that leads to Shirk or Kufr. The same basic contradiction would occur, for that matter, when calling the angels or any pious Muslim who never committed Kufr or Shirk as a Taaghoot. It is never to be allowed or condoned. Questions and controversies, and “gray” areas may occur about calling a Muslim who is a grievous sinner, hypocrite, wrongdoer and criminal, a Taaghoot, as will be explained in further detail below.

General introduction of Tauheed

and its relationship to rejection of Taaghoot

Allah created all mankind and the jinn (a species of unseen beings created from smoke of fire) for the sole reason that they should love, adore, worship and obey Allah as He is their only Beneficent Creator, Lord, Master and God.  All their activities should revolve around this central theme for their existence. Allah in His Wisdom and Mercy will provide for all their needs and true aspirations. They will find true peace, happiness and success, if they submit themselves to their Creator and His laws willingly and sincerely, as individuals, and collectively as families, clans, communities and nations.

Allah the Most Exalted said:

﴿ وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالْإِنسَ إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُونِ ﴾

“And I (Allah) have not created the Jinns and humans except that they should worship Me (Alone).”  [ath-Thaariyyaat 51:56]

Since Islam means the state of willing submission and surrender to the will and the command of Allah most Glorified, and a Muslim is a person in that state, it follows that a Muslim must reject all false worship and all Tawaagheet to correctly believe in and worship Allah, obey His commands, and fulfill the requirement of TauheedTauheed is Islamic monotheism, believing and practicing the worship of One God, and can be called the “unity” of Allah in His Lordship and Divinity and in our belief and worship of Him.

‘Ibaadah (worship, service, obedience) is a central concept necessary for understanding Tauheed and its antithesis Shirk in relation to Taaghoot. ‘Ibaadah includes much more than what is often thought to be the traditional confines of worship.

The gradual secularization of modern life style has compartmentalized, demoted and downgraded the concept of worship, restricting it to religious rites and rituals in traditional and institutionalized patterns.  This work will, by the grace of Allah and His aid, free the reader from these misguided restrictions, and restore the understanding that the concept of worship encompasses not only supplications, prayers, devotions, etc., but other aspects of human personal, social and political activities, whether modern man is willing to admit it or not.  An Ilah is a “god” since it is defined as all that which is worshiped, whether rightfully or not. Allah is the only “God” and it is His right to be worshiped. All others that are worshiped are “gods” with a small ‘g’ to indicate that their worship is false and in vein.   Allah is the one and only God.  Correct Deen (religion, way of life) is Islam, i.e. the worship of Allah, whereas incorrect religion is the worship of others than Allah like the various kinds of Tawaagheet, like the worship of Jesus by the Christians and the worship of rabbis and acolytes by the Jews, as will be identified in the coming pages insha-Allah (God-willing).

Tauheed is formulized and epitomized in the Shahaadah (testimony and witness): [لا اله إلا الله] “LA ILAAHA ILLALLAH.”  “There is no god except Allah.” In this Shahaadah the phrase [لا اله] LA ILAAHA, “there is no god” is a negation of the actual existence and right of worship of any and all so called “gods” and objects of worship, whether they are Taaghoot or otherwise.  The concluding part of the testimony is in the phrase [إلا الله] ILLALLAH “except Allah”, which completes the sentence by exempting and excluding all the false worship from the true worship of Allah.    The net effect is the most powerful affirmation that all worship is exclusively for Allah; all other deities and gods are entirely and absolutely excluded.

Ontologically the other deities and gods are not truly real.  They are merely whims of imagination and theoretical notions without actual existence except in the minds, on the tongues and in the books of their proponents. Epistemologically they are not really true and are vain falsehoods, fantasies and lies propagated by those who worship them or benefit from their worship. Ethically there is no moral right to claim divinity and obedience to them.  All such pretensions to any type or classification of divinity and the associated legal and political authority are wrong, unjust, evil, and utterly absurd. They are the tricks of the Shaitaan to misguide humans into eternal misery.  As Allah says:

﴿ إِنْ هِيَ إِلَّا أَسْمَاءٌ سَمَّيْتُمُوهَا أَنتُمْ وَآبَاؤُكُم مَّا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ بِهَا مِن سُلْطَانٍ إِن يَتَّبِعُونَ إِلَّا الظَّنَّ

وَمَا تَهْوَى الْأَنفُسُ وَلَقَدْ جَاءَهُم مِّن رَّبِّهِمُ الْهُدَى﴾

“They are but names that you have named, you and your fathers, for which Allah has sent down no authority. They follow only conjecture and that which they themselves desire, whereas there has surely come to them the Guidance from their Lord!” [an-Najm 53:23]

And Allah the Exalted said

﴿ إِنَّ اللّهَ لاَ يَغْفِرُ أَن يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَلِكَ لِمَن يَشَاء وَمَن يُشْرِكْ بِاللّهِ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلاَلاً بَعِيدًا () إِن يَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِهِ إِلاَّ إِنَاثًا وَإِن يَدْعُونَ إِلاَّ شَيْطَانًا مَّرِيدًا () لَّعَنَهُ اللّهُ وَقَالَ لَأَتَّخِذَنَّ مِنْ عِبَادِكَ نَصِيبًا مَّفْرُوضًا () وَلأُضِلَّنَّهُمْ وَلأُمَنِّيَنَّهُمْ وَلآمُرَنَّهُمْ فَلَيُبَتِّكُنَّ آذَانَ الأَنْعَامِ وَلآمُرَنَّهُمْ فَلَيُغَيِّرُنَّ خَلْقَ اللّهِ وَمَن يَتَّخِذِ الشَّيْطَانَ وَلِيًّا مِّن دُونِ اللّهِ فَقَدْ خَسِرَ خُسْرَانًا مُّبِينًا () يَعِدُهُمْ وَيُمَنِّيهِمْ وَمَا يَعِدُهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ إِلاَّ غُرُورًا ﴾

“Verily! Allah forgives not setting up partners in worship with Him, but He forgives whom He pleases for other than that, and whoever sets up partners in worship with Allah has indeed strayed far away. They invoke nothing but female deities besides Him (Allah), and they invoke nothing but Shaitaan (Satan), a persistent rebel! Allah cursed him. And he said: ‘I will take an appointed portion of your slaves; Verily, I will mislead them, and surely, I will arouse in them false desires; and certainly, I will order them to slit the ears of cattle, and indeed I will order them to change the creation of Allah. And whoever takes Shaitaan as a protector and helper instead of Allah, has surely suffered a manifest loss. He makes promises to them, and arouses in them false desires; and Shaitaan‘s promises are nothing but deceptions.” [an-Nisaá 4:116-120]

At another place in the Qur’an, Allah the Almighty repeats similar statement in the words of the Prophet Yusuf (Joseph) to his companions:

﴿ يَا صَاحِبَيِ السِّجْنِ أَأَرْبَابٌ مُّتَفَرِّقُونَ خَيْرٌ أَمِ اللّهُ الْوَاحِدُ الْقَهَّارُ () مَا تَعْبُدُونَ مِن دُونِهِ إِلاَّ أَسْمَاءٌ سَمَّيْتُمُوهَا أَنتُمْ وَآبَآؤُكُم مَّا أَنزَلَ اللّهُ بِهَا مِن سُلْطَانٍ إِنِ الْحُكْمُ إِلاَّ لِلّهِ أَمَرَ أَلاَّ تَعْبُدُواْ إِلاَّ إِيَّاهُ ذَلِكَ الدِّينُ الْقَيِّمُ وَلَكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ ﴾

“O my two companions of the prison!  Are many different lords (gods) better, or Allah, the One, the Irresistible? You do not worship, besides Him, except only names that you have named (forged), you and your fathers, for which Allah has sent down no authority. The command and rule is for none but Allah. He has commanded that you worship none but Him that is the straight religion, but most men know not.” [al-Yusuf 12:39-40]

When we say that these “gods” are not Allah the God, the Creator and the Lord-Sovereign, we mean this in the ultimate ontological, epistemological, and ethical sense, to use the philosophical terms. They are following some ideas and ideologues that they hold sacred and esteem: they are following the Tawaagheet.

Of course in the harsh ground realities of everyday life there are many “gods” and “demigods” for those who take them for worship, obey them, and fight tooth and nail to protect them and the customs, allegiance, and institutions they have developed and surrounded themselves with. They are real “gods” for those who direct the false idol worship to them, serve their interests and obey their commands.  When these various forms of worship are analyzed, the ultimate vanity, foolishness, and falsehood of their worship is apparent.  It can be seen that it all revolves around mutual worldly pleasures, privileges, and benefits. The false worship is perpetuated for economic, social and political interests of specific individuals and groups. They are truly evil since their worship institutionalizes the oppression, exploitation and tyranny of men against other men and women.

A person can become a Muslim only by saying, believing and practicing the Shahaadah (testimony and witness):  (لا اله إلا الله) “LA ILAHA ILLALLAH”  “There is no god except Allah.”  If he rejects and negates this testimony in belief, word or act, then his testimony becomes void and worthless.  He remains a Muslim only by practicing and holding firm to the Tauheed in the Shahaadah until his death and avoiding those things that exterminate it completely.  This concise sentence of the Shahaadah contains two phrases, one negative and the other affirmative. They are each a Rukn of Tauheed.

What is a Rukn and why is the study of this word crucially important? A Rukn (plural Arkaan) is linguistically an integral part of a thing’s essential being or existence.  A Shart (condition; plural Shuroot) is a pre-requisite that is necessary for the existence of that which it is conditional for.  Shuroot are similar to Arkaan (support, basic element; Rukn, sing.) in that both are necessary for the thing’s existence. A Shart is to be distinguished from a Rukn in that it is considered outside the thing’s essential being, whereas a Rukn is an integral part of that thing’s essential being.  For instance, making Wudu (abulution) is a Shart (condition) of an acceptable Salah (prayer), whereas reciting the Fatihah (the opening chapter of the Qur`an) is Rukn (essential element) of the Salah itself.  Giving a biological corollary, air, sun-energy, and water are Sharoot for life, whereas in the human case a heart, head, and lungs are Arkaan.  Of course Sharoot and Arkaan are inseparably intertwined in actual existence, and the body is made up of the same chemical elements as air and water etc.

The study and explanation of Sharoot (conditions) and Arkaan (essential elements) of the Shahaadah and of Tauheed is based upon a comprehensive study and assimilation of the text sources of Islam, the Qur’an and Sunnah.  Knowledge of Arkaan and Shuroot in Tauheed is the most important study for a Muslim since it identifies what beliefs, words and actions are mandatory to become and remain a Muslim, and thus to remain free from all forms of Shirk and Kufr.

Arkaan are the positive elements of Islam and they are opposed to the correlative negative elements, the Mubtilaat or Nawaaqid; those actions which annul and disqualify totally the performance of an act like Wudu, Salah, Zakah, Saum, and Hajj.  Next in importance are the Waajibaat, those obligatory actions which are necessary for their completion and which, if left, decrease the completeness, and may need an act of expiation to annul the sin of their damaging affects, failing which might be punishable. These positive acts, Waajibaat are correlated with their negative acts, the Muharramaat (those acts which are required to be left and rejected, and are punishable if perpetrated, but do not totally destroy the religion of Islam; only damage it proportionally to the misdeed and crime). Then there are the Sunan and Mustahabbaat, which if left, are not punishable, but for performing which there are rewards.  The Sunan and Mustahabbaat are correlated with the negative Makruhaat, which are detestable things to be avoided since there is reward for leaving them, and yet no specific legal punishment for doing them.

Thus we have three degrees of actions in worship of Allah, each with its correlation in the positive loved deeds and negative hated deeds. These deeds are graded according to whether they are: 1) absolutely necessary to perform or avoid, 2) obligatory to perform or avoid, and 3) recommended to perform or avoid.

{{ Positive}}Necessary to be Lovedand Affirmed {{Negative}}Necessary to be Hatedand Rejected
1) arkaan 1) mubtilaat, and nawaaqid
2) waajibaat, faraa`id 2) muharramaat
3) sunan and  mustahabbaat 3) makruhaat

The Arkaan, Waajibaat and Faraa`id are sometimes used interchangeably, as are the Mubtilaat, Nawaaqid and Muharramaat, and this can be confusing during an exact analysis of the importance of doing or avoiding an act and its necessity for the existence or nonexistence of Tauheed, or Iman or some specific worship.

Here in Tauheed the negative Rukn and the affirmative Rukn together are called the Ruknain (two Rukn) of the Shahaadah.  They are also called; Ruknai-ash-Shahaadah: [لا اله إلا الله] “LA ILAAHA ILLALLAH.” “There is no god except Allah.”

Ruknai-at-Tauheed:

the two pillars of Islamic Monotheism

1–The negative “Rukn”, is Bara`a min-ash-Shirk – absolving oneself from all idolatry, polytheism and the association of partners with Allah in belief and worship. This is also called “Kufr-bit-Taaghoot” – rejection of all idols and the false worship of Taaghoot.  It could be called, from one perspective, the main Mubtil or Naaqid of Islam and Iman (faith) that must be avoided.   From the other perspective, it is called a rukn in the sense of stressing its necessity.

2–The positive “Rukn”, is the Iman billah — belief and faith in Allah. It is also called ‘Ibaadatullah – (sincere) worship of Allah, and it can also be called Tauheedullah — making Allah your one and only God in belief and worship.

Each “Rukn” of the Shahaadah complements and completes the other, and without the other, neither can exist wholly, nor be complete. Together they are the two most basis fundamentals and elements of correct belief and action in Tauheed.  They are necessarily in need of each other for the fulfillment of Tauheed.  They are, if you will, the binary code basic to all worship since they necessitate the love of Allah and the hate of the Tawaagheet. Together this fundamental love and hate are the positive and negative forces that create the spark of life making Islam (submission) and Eemaan (faith) strong.  Once activated, they are the energy source to sustain and strengthen one’s Eemaan.  If a Muslim fails or lapses in either one of these two elements, his Islam and Eemaan suffer proportionately, resulting in sickness of Shubhaat (doubts and false ideas) and Shahawaat (desires and lusts). This ultimately can be fatal to his Islam and Eemaan, nullifying his Shahaadah, and we seek refuge in Allah from all our sins.

Every act of worship directed to something or someone besides Allah is an arrogant derogation of Allah’s sacred divinity and supreme Lordship over His creation, and is a form of Shirk.  Whether the worshiper acknowledges it or not, deserves the worst punishment in this life and the hereafter.

The root word “Shirk” implies partnership and conjoining in association: thus Shirk is the antithesis of Tauheed and includes all forms of idolatry, polytheism, pantheism, monism, dualism, atheism, and associating any peers or partners, in belief or practice, with Allah. This Shirk may be committed in Allah’s unique Ruboobiyyah (Lordship), Uloohiyyah (Divinity) or His Asmaa was-Sifaat (Names and Attributes). Those who ascribe partners with Allah and worship other than Allah only do so in extreme ignorance, or in stubborn arrogance and disobedience of what they have been ordered by Allah and His Messengers.  They do so against their own best interests and in spite of their natural disposition to revere and obey their Lord and Creator, who alone deserves to be worshiped and absolutely loved and obeyed.

A complete understanding of the negation and affirmation in the testimony “LA ILAAHA ILLALLAH”, and the relationship between the two, is the key that unlocks common misunderstandings about Tauheed.  This is the central theme of the scriptural texts in the Qur’an (Book of Allah), the Sunnah (Way) of the prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, as recorded in the Sahih (correct, authenticated, confirmed and verified) literature of the Hadeeth (traditions).

In order to sincerely worship Allah, the worshiper must negate all forms of Shirk, Kufr and all Tawaagheet; any lapse therein will disqualify his worship of Allah.  He must also positively perform the acts of worship commanded by Allah, his Lord, in accordance with the message of His Messenger sincerely and without shirking his duty in any fundamental obligation, which becomes paramount to denying and abandoning the worship of Allah.

The concluding part of the Shahaadah is: [محمد رسول الله] MUHAMMAD-UR-RASOOLULLAH “Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah”. This part is about the Risaalah (message) of the Rasool (messenger) Muhammad, the Messenger sent by Allah with all the specific details of the rules and manners of worship.

The two parts together are called the Shahaadatain (two testimonies):

(لا اله إلا الله محمد رسول الله)

LA ILAAHA ILLALLAH MUHAMMAD-UR-RASOOLULLAH

“There is no god except Allah, Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah”

Customarily a Muslim pronounces the two testimonies with the words:  Ashhadu an LA ILAAHA ILLALLAH wa ashhadu anna MUHAMMAD-AR-RASOOLULLAH, which means: “I bear witness that there is no god except Allah and I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.”  Bearing witness and testifying that Muhammad – peace and blessing of Allah be upon him- is the Rasool (Messenger) means taking him as the last and final Messenger and Prophet from Allah.  It signifies believing in all the information that is transmitted faithfully in his message from Allah, that it is perfectly true, correct and morally good and excellent.  Furthermore, it means following his example and obeying him in his commands, since the Prophet only commands that which Allah revealed to him in the message from Allah, and ordered him to convey to the people by word and the by the example of his deed. His status is unique since he is always Abd (slave and worshiper) of Allah, a Nabi (Prophet) of Allah, and a Rasool (Messenger) of Allah, whereas any other human after him can be either Abdullah (slave and worshiper of Allah) or Abd (slave and worshiper) to the false gods, idols and desires that he serves and worships.  Anybody after him can never be a Nabi or a Rasool. [The one exception is the second coming of Jesus Christ, but authentic traditions prove that he will follow and implement the message and law that the Messenger Muhammad brought, peace be upon both of them.]  Taking Muhammad, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, as the Messenger and Prophet of Allah also signifies that he is the only source of the judgments and commandments of the Sharee’ah (Canon Law) of Islam. The original pure messages of the messengers of Allah Musa (Moses) and Esa (Jesus) have been corrupted with time and distorted by their followers, and therefore the previous Sharee’ah has been abrogated by the Qur`an and the authentic Sunnah, which together form the basis of the Islamic Sharee’ah.

Bearing witness and testifying that Muhammad, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, is the Rasool (Messenger) and performing that which is necessary in relation to the Messenger, is sometimes called Tauheed al-Mutabe’ah, oneness of following and adhering to the obedience.

Tauheed al-‘Ibaadah specifies that only Allah will be worshiped, and Tauheed al-Mutabe’ah specifies the exact way and form of the worship: who to worship and how to worship. Leaving either of the two absolutely or doing acts that nullify either one causes greater Kufr and greater shirk. Avoiding Taaghoot is also necessary to free oneself from the Kufr and shirk.

It is necessary for a Muslim to pronounce, understand, believe in and practice sincerely the essential requirements and obligations of both testimonies, in effect, to witness to the truth of the testimonies through word and deed at all times of his life until his death.

A Muslim worships Allah alone, and he never worships anyone or anything else.  The reason why a Muslim worships Allah alone is that only Allah is worthy of worship since all other objects of worship are merely creatures like himself – in the final analysis utterly powerless, destitute and ignorant until their Lord strengthens, enriches and educates them.  Since this is the ultimate truth and reality that man knows deep in his heart and consciousness even if he may arrogantly suppress it, any worship directed to any one besides Allah cannot be really pure, sincere and truly wholehearted.  The Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, provides by perfect example and infallible instruction the specific content of how, when, and in what form and manner a Muslim should sincerely worship Allah.

The word Islam specifically means being in the state of submission to Allah, worshiping Him alone with Tauheed, and reverently accepting and obeying His Sharee’ah (Law).   Islam is a Deen, a religion and complete way of life.  Peace, security, and wholesome well-being follows proportionately to the quality and amount of the submission to Allah and His Sharee’ah.  A Muslim or Muslimah is the person (male or female) in the state of Islam whether completely or with some imperfections that do not nullify Islam.   By definition of his or her Islam, a person must fulfill the conditions and pillars of Tauheed.  Sins, ignorance, and wrongdoings may weaken Islam and Eemaan (or Eemaan, faith and belief) proportionally, whereas shirk (idolatry) and kufr (disbelief) nullify and destroy Islam and Iman completely.  The five Arkaan (pillars) of Islam are: Shahaadah, salah (prayer), Zakah (alms), Saum (fasting) and Hajj (pilgrimage).   Hijra (emigration) and Jihad (effort, endeavor, struggle) in the way of Allah and for His sake and in the cause of Islam are incumbent under certain conditions according to the ability.

Allah the Exalted said:

﴿ وَمَن يَبْتَغِ غَيْرَ الإِسْلاَمِ دِينًا فَلَن يُقْبَلَ مِنْهُ وَهُوَ فِي الآخِرَةِ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ ﴾

“If anyone desires a religion other than Islam (submission to Allah) it will never be accepted from him and he will be in the Hereafter of the Losers.” [Aal-i-‘Imraan 3:85]

The entire “Deen” (religion, way of life) that is Islam is based upon Tauheed as stated in the Shahaadah. This is confirmed and expounded upon in the Qur`an and Sunnah.  Since comprehending and fulfilling Tauheed depends upon avoiding false worship and Taaghoot, it follows that it is a specific obligation on all Muslims to have detailed knowledge about all forms of Shirk and all Tawaagheet.   Of course, knowledge is only the first means to the specific end of correct action and implementation.  All Muslims will, by necessity, eventually be confronted with Taaghoot and their promoters, worshipers and allies, and must avoid them in all the ways that would make them deviate into Kufr and Shirk in order to remain a Muslim and Mu`min (faithful believer).

The Arabic word Kufr has the root [K-F-R] (كفر) and signifies covering, hiding, and ingratitude.   Kufr as opposed to Iman includes the denial and rejection (covering) of the reality and truth of Allah and His Prophets and Messengers, denial and rejection of the right of Allah to be worshiped sincerely, denial and rejection of the right of Allah and His Prophets and Messengers to be obeyed by following the Sharee’ah , and ingratitude towards Allah’s multiple blessings. Just as Eemaan includes intentions, beliefs, words and acts, greater and lesser Kufr can also be performed by any of these.

The word can have a positive and negative connotation depending on its usage. For instance we must disbelieve and disavow the worship of all others besides Allah, and this is “Kufr” of those others, meaning denial, disbelief, and absolving yourself of them.  As the Prophetic narration says:

مَنْ قَالَ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَكَفَرَ بِمَا يُعْبَدُ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ حَرُمَ مَالُهُ وَدَمُهُ وَحِسَابُهُ عَلَى اللَّهِ

“Whoever says LA ILAHA ILLALLAH and disavows (Kafara) what is worshiped other than Allah, will have his blood and property protected and sanctified, and his account will be with Allah, the Almighty and Majestic.” [Reported by Muslim]

Origin of idolatry and polytheism

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Another form of Excerpts From book  

ركن التوحيد هو الكفر بالطاغوت واجتنابه اوالطاغوت والكفر بالطواغيت

كتبه الفقير الى مغفرة ربه أبو ســلمان ضياء الدين ابرلي

“A pillar of Tauheed is Rejecting  Taaghoot and avoiding it”  Or “Taaghoot & Rejecting Tawaagheet

by Abu Salman Deya ud-Deen Eberle (who seeks the Mercy of Allah)

This means that for proper correct Tauheed it is necessary to deny, disassociate from, repudiate and avoid all forms of Tawaagheet,

 1] All Prophets of Allah commanded to Worship Allah, and that all forms of Taaghoot must be avoided: therefore it is one of the two pillars of Tauheed | Therefore, Disbelief in, and denial of and repudiation of “Taaghoot must be open and clear is one of the two pillars of Tauheed:   “LA ILAHA ILL-A-LLAH”   *** Remember that affirmation and negation are the two pillars, both are necessary, and there is no Tauheed when only one without the other.

Binary code of all Life and Tauheed – Allah created all things pairs -zaujain

(+) Positive (Affirmation) aspect to worship Allah with all love, devotion etc

(-) Negative (Negation) aspect to reject and avoid all shirk Taghhoot, Shirk

 

Explanation Clarification of word and concept of Taaghoot 

|> Allah revealed 8 verses about Taaghoot

|> Prophet peace be upon him, warned us about Taaghoot and all false worship,

|> Sahabah and scholars of Islam have explained all this in great detail, all the way up until this modern era of great trials – danger

 

Language The word Taaghoot – comprehensively including all  that has exceeded the bounds and is worshiped other than Allah, whether alive or non-living, on the condition that if it is a living being it is pleased with the false worship or is conspicuously quiet and does not reject and repudiate it (Yakfur bit-Taaghoot) which implies that one consents.  A Taaghoot has passed some extreme limit that distinguishes and defines Islam, Iman (or Eemaan, faith and belief) and Tauheed (Islamic monotheism) which takes one into the opposite of Iman, which is Kufr, (disbelief), and to the opposite of Tauheed, which is Shirk (polytheism, idolatry).

This condition “to be pleased with the false worship and not to reject it” is extremely important in order to avoid some common misconceptions and misdeeds. All the Prophets and Messengers of Allah, like Esa (Jesus), and the angels, and some very pious people, for example, are not Taaghoot even though they may be objects of worship for some of the ignorant masses, because they have rejected, rebuked and totally repudiated all false worship of those who worship them or anything else other than Allah.

The Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, has been taken as an object of worship by some who are ignorant even though it is known by all Muslims of sufficient knowledge that he expressly forbade that and cut off all pathways and corridors that lead to any exaggeration of his human status as a Messenger and Prophet of Allah who worships Allah only without any form of Shirk – idolatry, polytheism, and association of partners with Allah in worship.

Similarly the companion of the prophet Muhammad, peace and blessing of Allah be upon him, Ali ibn Abi Taalib and his sons Hasan and Hussain, may Allah be pleased with them, even though they are objects of worship for many of the Shi’a sect, are not Taaghoot since they also rejected and rebuked the worship of other than Allah. Ali ibn Abi Taalib, may Allah be pleased with him, had even put to death those that came to him from the Ghulaat (extremists) of the Sabaa`iyyah (followers of Abdullah ibn Sabaa, the ringleader and initiator of extremist Shi’ism) and claimed that Ali was their Lord and God Himself incarnate (in the flesh), may Allah be exalted above any blasphemy.  If this above is true, then how much more is this true about the righteous people and those taken as SAINTS????

QURAN In Makkah our Lord and Creator Allah, the Most Exalted, revealed the comprehensive verse that says:

﴿ وَلَقَدْ بَعَثْنَا فِي كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ رَّسُولاً أَنِ اعْبُدُواْ اللّهَ وَاجْتَنِبُواْ الطَّاغُوتَ فَمِنْهُم مَّنْ هَدَى اللّهُ وَمِنْهُم مَّنْ حَقَّتْ عَلَيْهِ الضَّلالَةُ فَسِيرُواْ فِي الأَرْضِ فَانظُرُواْ كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الْمُكَذِّبِينَ ﴾

“And assuredly We have sent among every people a messenger (with the command): Worship Allah and avoid Taaghoot, And among them were those whom Allah guided, and among them were those upon whom error was decreed.  So proceed through the earth and observe how was the end of the deniers.” [an-Nahl 16:36]

This verse explicitly proves that the short but powerful message contained in this verse, with the negative and positive aspects of Tauheed as explained above, is the central theme of all the revealed messages through all the Messengers and Prophets of Allah at all times. The same basic message is also contained in the Shahaadah.

The other Makkan verse revealed about Taaghoot is the saying of Allah:

﴿ وَالَّذِينَ اجْتَنَبُوا الطَّاغُوتَ أَن يَعْبُدُوهَا وَأَنَابُوا إِلَى اللَّهِ لَهُمُ الْبُشْرَى فَبَشِّرْ عِبَادِ ﴾

“Those who avoid Taaghoot, not worshipping it, and turn to Allah in repentance, for them are glad-tidings; so announce the good news to My slaves.” [az-Zumar 39:17]

This verse is significant in that our first obligation is to avoid the worship of other than Allah.  Only after offering our worships to Allah are we obliged to seek forgiveness for the unavoidable mistakes and lapses we fall into before, during, and after our worship of Allah.

Similar to the above is the following verse of Allah:

﴿ فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لِذَنبِكَ وَلِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ ﴾

So know that there is no god except Allah, and ask forgiveness for your sin, and for the believing men and believing women…” [Muhammad 47:19] 

The first obligation is to know: LA ILAAHA ILLALLAH and its meaning, since only by proper knowledge can one hope to proceed to accomplish proper faith and action.

Our obligation to reject Taaghoot in the general, absolute, and comprehensive sense is mentioned by Allah Most Exalted in the first Surah (Chapter) that was revealed in Madinah, when He the Irresistible said:

﴿ لاَ إِكْرَاهَ فِي الدِّينِ قَد تَّبَيَّنَ الرُّشْدُ مِنَ الْغَيِّ فَمَنْ يَكْفُرْ بِالطَّاغُوتِ وَيُؤْمِن بِاللّهِ فَقَدِ اسْتَمْسَكَ بِالْعُرْوَةِ الْوُثْقَىَ لاَ انفِصَامَ لَهَا وَاللّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ ﴾

“There is no compulsion in Deen (religion, way of life)).  The Rushd (Rightly Guided Way) has become distinct from the Ghai  (way of extreme wrong and misguidance). Whoever rejects (yakfur bit-Taaghoot: evil, idols, etc.) and believes in Allah, then he has grasped the most trustworthy handhold that never breaks, and Allah is All-Seer, All-Knower.” [al-Baqarah 2:256]

Right after the above verse Allah says:

﴿ اللّهُ وَلِيُّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ يُخْرِجُهُم مِّنَ الظُّلُمَاتِ إِلَى النُّوُرِ وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ أَوْلِيَآؤُهُمُ  الطَّاغُوتُ يُخْرِجُونَهُم مِّنَ النُّورِ إِلَى الظُّلُمَاتِ أُوْلَئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ ﴾

“Allah is the Wali (Friend, Protector, Guardian, Ally) of those who believe. He brings them out from layers of darkness into light.  But as for those who disbelieve, their Auliya (pl. of Wali) are Taaghoot, they bring them out from light into layers of darkness. Those are the dwellers of the Fire, and they will abide therein forever.” [Baqarah 2:257]

This verse affirms that all believers are the friends and allies of Allah, guided by Allah the Beneficent, by virtue of their faith and good deeds in Islam, whereas the disbelievers have their Taaghoot as their fake friends and ally and they only misguide deeper and deeper into an abyss of darkness and evil.

And Allah the Exalted said:

﴿ الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ يُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ يُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ الطَّاغُوتِ فَقَاتِلُواْ أَوْلِيَاء الشَّيْطَانِ إِنَّ كَيْدَ الشَّيْطَانِ كَانَ ضَعِيفًا ﴾

“Those who believe fight in the Cause of Allah, and those who disbelieve fight in the cause of Taaghoot, so fight against the friends and allies of Shaitaan (Satan). Feeble indeed is the plot of Shaitaan.”  [an-Nisa’a 4:76]

This verse is evident that all believers, by virtue of their faith in Islam and brotherhood with the Muslims, fight for the cause of Allah, in spirit, word and deed. The disbelievers, by the fact of their disbelief, fight in the way of Taaghoot, in spirit, word and deed.

And Allah the Exalted said:

﴿ قُلْ هَلْ أُنَبِّئُكُم بِشَرٍّ مِّن ذَلِكَ مَثُوبَةً عِندَ اللّهِ مَن لَّعَنَهُ اللّهُ وَغَضِبَ عَلَيْهِ وَجَعَلَ مِنْهُمُ الْقِرَدَةَ وَالْخَنَازِيرَ وَعَبَدَ الطَّاغُوتَ أُوْلَئِكَ شَرٌّ مَّكَاناً وَأَضَلُّ عَن سَوَاء السَّبِيلِ ﴾

“Say, ‘Shall I inform you of something worse than that, regarding the recompense from Allah: those (Jews) who incurred the Curse of Allah and His Wrath, those of whom  (some) He transformed into monkeys and swine, those who worshiped Taaghoot such are worse in rank (on the Day of Resurrection), and far more astray from the Right Path.” [al-Maa’idah 5:60]

And Allah the Exalted said:

﴿ أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ نَصِيبًا مِّنَ الْكِتَابِ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْجِبْتِ وَالطَّاغُوتِ وَيَقُولُونَ لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ هَؤُلاء أَهْدَى مِنَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ سَبِيلاً ﴾

“Have you not seen those who were given a portion of the Scripture who believe in Jibt and Taaghoot and say to the disbelievers that they are better guided as regards their way than the believers (Muslims).” [an-Nisa’a 4:52]

And Allah the Exalted said:

﴿ أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ يَزْعُمُونَ أَنَّهُمْ آمَنُواْ بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ يُرِيدُونَ أَن يَتَحَاكَمُواْ اِلَى الطَّاغُوتِ وَقَدْ أُمِرُواْ أَن يَكْفُرُواْ بِهِ وَيُرِيدُ الشَّيْطَانُ أَن يُضِلَّهُمْ ضَلاَلاً بَعِيدًا﴾

“Have you not seen those who claim that they believe in that which has been sent down to you, and that which was sent down before you, and they wish to go for rulings and judgments (in their disputes) to the Taaghoot, while they have been ordered to reject them (yakfuru bihi). Indeed the Shaitan wishes to lead them far astray.” [an-Nisa’a 4:60]

So many hadeeth and sayings of scholars thus we cannot mentioned them all here so only quick Summary

In a very lengthy tradition we find the words of the Messenger of Allah to his companions, peace and blessing be upon him:

“…فهل تضارون في الشمس ليس دونها سحاب ؟ قالوا لا يا رسول الله. قال: فإنكم كذلك يجمع الله الناس يوم القيامة فيقول من كان يعبد شيئاً فليتبعه، فيتبع من كان يعبد الشمس الشمس ويتبع من كان يعبد القمر القمر ويتبع من كان يعبد الطواغيت الطواغيت، فتبقى هذه الأمة فيها شافعوها  أو نافقوها ( شك إبراهيم – أي الراوي)  فيأتهم الله فيقول :أنا ربكم  [رواه البخاري (7437) ومسلم (

“Do you have any problem in seeing the sun when there are no clouds? They said: No. He said: Verily like that you will gathered on the Day of Resurrection and it will be said: whoever used to worship something then let him follow that thing, so the people that worshiped the sun will follow the sun and the people that worshiped the moon will follow the moon and the people that worshiped the Tawaagheet will follow the Tawaagheet, and then there will only remain this Ummah (nation) and with them the intercessors or hypocrites [the narrator Ibraheem was doubtful here] and then Allah will come and say I am your Lord….” [The tradition in its entirety reported by Bukhari, Muslim and others]

Imam al-Bukhari named a chapter heading “Chapter on the prohibition of making oaths by al-Laat, and al-Uzza, and the Tawaagheet”.  In this chapter he related the tradition of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him:

وبوّب البخاري ” باب لا يحلف باللات والعزى ولا بالطواغيت ” وأورد فيه حديث أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه ن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال “من حلف فقال في حلفه باللات والعزى فليقل لا إله إلا الله…” [الحديث رواه البخاري  650 ومسلم  1648 فقد أشار البخاري في تبويبه هذا إلى رواية لم يروها هو ولكن رواها غيره كالإمام مسلم بلفظ : “لا تحلفوا بالطواغي ولا بآبائكم”  رواه مسلم 1648 وفي رواية أخرى: “ولا بالطواغيت.” رواه النسائي 7/3774 ورواه أيضاً ابن ماجة  1/2095 واللفظ له]

“Whoever makes an oath and says in his oath by al-Laat, and al-Uzza, then let him say LA ILAAHA ILLALLAH …”

This is to reaffirm his faith in the testimony that no one deserves to be worshiped except Allah, and to expiate the sin caused by the habitual slip of the tongue from the time of paganism. Imam al-Bukhari named this chapter as:

“No oath by laat and Uzza nor by the Tawaagheet” but did not use these words in this narration, which other narrators have used like Muslim reports with the wording of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him:لا تحلفوا بالطواغي ولا بآبائكم”   [ رواه مسلم (1648 ]“Do not make an oath by the “Tawaghee” nor by your fathers.” [Reported by Muslim 1648]In the narration of Nissa`e and Ibn Majah we find: ولا بالطواغيت.” [رواه النسائي 7/3774 ورواه أيضاً ابن ماجة  1/2095 واللفظ له]”…nor by the Tawaagheet.” [Reported by Nisa`e 7/3774 and Ibn Majah 1/2095, and the words here are from Ibn Majah]

And of the Sahaba and Taba’een,  for instance  

Tabari, Ibn Abi Hatim and others report that the Sahaabi (companion) Omar ibn-al-Khattaab, may Allah be pleased with him, said:  [وقال عمر بن الخطاب رضي الله عنه الطاغوت الشيطان

Taaghoot is Satan.” [Reported by at-Tabari no.5834 and al-Bukhari attached it in his Sahih no. 4538] This is also reported upon Ibn Abbas, the Sahaabi (companion), and Mujahid, Sha’bi, Sudi, Muqatil of the Taba’een (followers) and others [See at-Tabari 5/17, Ibn Jawzi in Zaad al-Maseer 1/306]

It is reported that the companion Jabir ibn Abdullah, may Allah be pleased with him, said:

وقال جابر بن عبد الله رضي الله عنهما في الطاغوت:” كهان كانت تنزل عليهم الشياطين. وقال :كانت الطواغيت التي يتحاكمون إليها،  في جهينة واحد، وفي كل حي واحد، في أسلم واحد، وفي كل حي واحد، كهان ينزل عليهم الشيطان. ”  وعن سعيد بن جبير وعكرمة وأبي العالية نحوه.   [رواه ابن جرير الطبري 5/ 418 رقم 5843 و5843 وعلقه البخاري (4583) وانظر ابن الجوزي زاد المسير والسيوطي في الدرر المنثور 2/581) ]

“(Taaghoot) means the soothsayers or diviners on whom the devils have descended (possessed and inspired to do evil).” And he said: “The Tawaagheet are those from whom the people used to seek judgments: in the tribe of Juhaina there was one; in the tribe of Aslam there was one; in every area there was one. They are the soothsayers that would receive inspiration from the Shayaateen (devils).” [Reported by at-Tabari 5/418, and Bukhari attached it in his Sahih no. 4583 and we find many similar reports of similar meaning by others]

Abdullah ibn Abbaas, may Allah be pleased with them, has various narrations reported on him concerning alJibt, and among them the following: it is Satan in the Ethiopian language; shirk; idols; Huyay ibn Akhtaab (the Jewish leader).  And he is also reported to have said:

وعن ابن عباس رضي الله  عنه  أيضاً ” الجبت الأصنام و الطاغوت الذين يكونون بين يدي الأصنام يعبرون عنها  الكذب ليضلوا الناس”.[رواه ابن جرير الطبري 8/461 رقم 9865]

 “Al-Jibt is the idol, and the Taaghoot is the custodian and propagator of that idol who translates the idols’ meanings to the people to mislead them.”  [Reported by at-Tabari 8/461 no.9865]

The Taba’een and their followers,

One of the most famous of the Taba’een and the Mufassireen (commentators and scholars of Qura’nic exegesis) Mujahid said: إن الطاغوت هو الشيطان في صورة الإنسان يتحاكمون إليه وهو صاحب أمرهم.”

Taaghoot is the Shaitaan in the form of a human from whom the people seek judgments, and he is their leader.” [Reported by at-Tabari no.9770 and mentioned by many others]

 

Abu Aaliyyah said:  :الطاغوت  الساحر. [الطبري 5/418 رقم 5841  وابن الجوزي في زاد المسير

“The Taaghoot is the sorcerer.” [Reported by at-Tabari no.5841 and mentioned by many others]

 

Sa’eed ibn Jubair said:  قال لي راهب:  يا سعيد: في الفتنة يتبين لك من يعبد الله تعالى ومن يعبد الطاغوت

“A monk said to me: O Sa’eed, in the times of civil strife, it becomes clear who worships Allah and who worships the Taaghoot.” [Reported by Ibn Abi Shaibah, Musannif  no.37242, al-Ajuri, Shari’ah

 

This piece of wisdom points to the fact that only testing grounds disclose one’s true intentions as it is well known by all that the hypocrites and criminals, when possible, take advantage of opportunities during war, rebellion and strife.

 

Muqaatil said: وقال مقاتل :” الطاغوت كعب بن الأشرف وحيي بن أخطب وسائر رؤوس الضلالة

“The Taaghoot is Ka’ab ibn Asraf, Huyay ibn Akhtab and the kingpin leaders of misguidance.”  [Tafseer Ma’alim atTanzeel by al-Baghawi 10/241] Ad-Dahhaak made a somewhat similar statement.

 

Imam Malik ibn Anas said: وقال الإمام مالك بن أنس أن الطاغوت ” ما عبد من دون الله.”

Taaghoot is everything worshiped besides Allah.” (See the Qur’anic commentaries like Tabari, as-Suyyuti in Durar al Manthuur, Ibn Katheer, etc).

 

Many scholars have said that this statement is the best as a definition since it is the most comprehensive statement and it includes the various usages of the word, except that it needs the qualification made in the introduction: and is pleased with that worship, since as it was proved that the Angels, Messengers and Prophets may be worshiped by some of the foolish ones but they are not considered Tawaagheet since they reject and rebuke the false idolatrous worship.

And of the Scholars for instance  

Imam Ibn Qayyim has given a comprehensive definition to the word by saying:

قال ابن القيم: “الطاغوت ما تجاوز به العبد حده من معبود أو متبوع أو مطاع ، فطاغوت كل قوم ما يتحاكمون إليه غير الله أو يعبدونه من دون الله أو يتبعونه على غير بصيرة من الله  أو يطيعونه فيما لا يعلمون أنه طاعة الله فهذه طواغيت العالم إذا تأملتها وتأملت أحوال الناس معها رأيت أكثرهم عدلوا عن عبادة الله إلى عبادة الطاغوت وعن التحاكم إلى الله ورسوله إلى التحاكم إلى الطاغوت وعن طاعته وعن متابعته رسوله إلى طاعة الطاغوت ومتابعته.” [إعلام الموقعين 1/50]]

Taaghoot includes anything which a person worships, follows, or obeys beyond the proper limits.  So Taaghoot of each people is that which they appeal to for a political or legal decision other than Allah and His Messenger (being the Qur’an and Sunnah embodied in the revealed canon law of Islam (Shari’ah), or that which they worship other than Allah, or those whom they follow, subordinate themselves to, and obey without regard to Allah (and the Shari’ah).  These are the main Tawaagheet of the world, and if you contemplate them and then reflect upon the state of mankind, you come to realize that the vast majority of people have turned away `from the worship of Allah to the worship of their Tawaagheet, and from the obedience of Allah’s messengers to the obedience of their Tawaagheet.” [I’lam al-Muwaqa`een 1/50].

Sheikh Ibn Sahmaan mentioned the verse of Surat-an-Nisa`a [4:60] and said:

قال سليمان بن سحمان رحمه الله في تفسير قوله تعالى: {ولقد بعثنا في كل أمة رسـولاً أن اعبدوا الله واجتنبوا الطاغوت} (النحل:36): “وأما حقيقته والمراد به فقد تعددت عبارات السلف عنه وأحسن ما قيل فيه كلام ابن القيم رحمه الله حيث قال… وحاصله أن الطاغوت ثلاثـة أنواع طاغوت حكم، وطاغوت عبادة، وطاغوت طاعة ومتابعة.. والمقصود في هذه الورقة هو طاغوت الحكم فإن كثيراً من الطوائف المنتسبي ن إلى الإسلام قد صاروا     يتحاكمون إلى عادات آبائهم … وهذا هو الطاغوت بعينه الذي أمر الله باجتنابه” [الدرر السنية 8/272  ]

“… there are numerous and various statements from the predecessors about it, and the best statement is by Ibn Qayyim …(after mentioning his words as above he said). The summary is that Taaghoot is three types,

Taaghoot al-Hukm (Taaghoot of ruling),

Taaghoot al-‘Ibaadah (Taaghoot of worshiping),

 Taaghoot at-Taa’ah wal Mutaabi’ah (Taaghoot of obeying and following).

The intended meaning here (in Surat-an-Nisa`a) is Taaghoot-al-Hukm.  Many people who identify as Muslims seek judgments according to the customs of their fathers… This is the Taaghoot that Allah commanded us to avoid.” [ad-Durar as-Saniyyah 8/272]

He means of course, ruling by other than what Allah has revealed in the Qur’an and Sunnah, worshiping other than Allah, and obeying and following in the ultimate and absolute sense other than Allah and His Messenger, peace and blessing be upon him.

 

Muhammad  Abdul  Wahhab  said: “Taaghoot is a general term of classification.  Everything and anything which is worshiped other than Allah and is pleased with that worship, whether the thing is an object of worship or of obedience in conflict with the obedience of Allah and His Messenger, is a TaaghootTawaagheet are many (and varied), but the principal tawaagheet of the world are specified as five:

-1- Satan, who calls man to worship others besides Allah.   Allah Most Exalted says: “Did not I ordain for you, O children of Adam, that you should not worship ash-Shaitaan (Satan).  Verily he is your plain (and sworn) enemy.” (Yaseen 36:60).

-2- The unjust tyrannical ruler, who rules by his whim rather than Allah’s Law.  Allah Most Exalted says: “Have you seen those who pretend to believe in what has been revealed to you and what has been revealed before you, how they go for their legal-judgments to the Taaghoot, even though they have been ordered to disbelieve in it. But Satan wishes to lead them far astray.” (An-Nisa’a 4:60].

-3- He who judges arbitrarily according to custom and legal precepts other than Allah’s Just Law.   Allah Most Exalted says: ” And whoever does not judge (and rule) by what Allah has revealed, verily, they are the disbelievers.” (al-Maaidah 5:44).

-4- He who alleges knowledge of the unseen (without revelation from Allah).   Allah Most Exalted says: “(He alone is) the All-Knower of the Unseen, and He reveals to none His Unseen – Except to a Messenger whom He has chosen, and then He makes a troop of guardian (angels) to march before and behind him.” (al-Jinn 72:27). And Allah Most Exalted says: “And with Him are the keys of the Unseen (and Hidden); none knows them except He.  And He knows whatever there is in the earth and in the sea; not even a leaf falls but He knows it.  There is not a grain in the darkness of the earth or anything moist (and fresh) or dry (and hard) but it is written in a Clear Record-Book.” (al-An’aam 6:59).

-5- He who allows himself to be worshiped and is pleased by such worship.  Allah Most Exalted says: “And if any of them would say ‘Verily I am a god besides Him (Allah)’ such a person We would recompense with Hell.  Thus We recompense the unjust and iniquitous.” (al-Anbiya’a 21:29).

And let it be known that no person becomes (a Muslim and) a believer (Mu`min) in Allah except by the rejection (Kufr) of the Taaghoot, the proof being the saying of Allah Most Exalted: “Whoever rejects Taaghoot (evil, idols, etc.) and believes in Allah, then he has grasped the most trustworthy handhold that never breaks, and Allah is All-Seer, All-Knower.” [al-Baqarah 2:256]   The Rushd  (rightly guided way) is the deen (way and religion) of Muhammad (the Messenger of Allah) may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him, whereas the Ghai (way of extreme wrong and misguidance) is the deen of Abi Jahl.    The most trustworthy handhold is the testimony that “LAA ILAAHA ILLALLAH” (there is no god (worthy of worship) except Allah) which includes within it a negation and an affirmation, a negation of all worship offered to other than Allah, and an affirmation that all worship is due (rightfully) to Allah alone who has no peer or partner.”  [End of lengthy quote]

Sheikh Salih al-Uthaimeen said:

وقال الشيخ العثيمين: “الطاغوت مشتق من الطغيان وإذا كان كذلك فيشمل كل ما تجاوز به   العبد حده من متبوع أو معبود أو مطاع فالأصنام والأمراء والحكام الذين يحلون الحرام ويحرمون الحلال طواغيت.”  [القول المفيد على     كتاب التوحيد 2/ 288 ]  وقال أيضاً بعد ذكر تفسير جابر بأن الطاغوت الكهان وتفسير عمر بأن الطاغوت  الشيطان …” فالأصنام والعلماء والأمراء الذين يضلون الناس يعتبرون طواغيت لأنهم طغوا وزادوا وفعلوا ما ليس لهم به حق.”  [ القول المفيد على كتاب التوحيد 2/9 ]

Taaghoot is derived from Tughyaan, which is going to extremes and passing the limits, and since this is the meaning, it indicates everything by which someone passes the limit of a follower or object of worship or one obeyed, like the idols and the leaders, commanders and rulers who make legal that which is illegal, and make illegal that which is legal: (they all are) Tawagheet.” [al-Qaul al-Mufeed ala Kitab at-Tauheed 2/288]

And he said after mentioning the saying of the Sahabi Jabir, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Taaghoot is soothsayer and saying of ‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Taaghoot is shaitaan:

وقال أيضاً بعد ذكر تفسير جابر بأن الطاغوت الكهان وتفسير عمر بأن الطاغوت  الشيطان …” فالأصنام والعلماء والأمراء الذين يضلون الناس يعتبرون طواغيت لأنهم طغوا وزادوا وفعلوا ما ليس لهم به حق.”  [ القول المفيد على كتاب التوحيد 2/9 ]

“ The idols, the scholars and the leaders who mislead the people are considered Tawagheet because they have trespassed the limit, and did that which they have no right to do.” [Ibid 2/9]

And he said explaining the statement of Ibn Qayyim as cited above:

قال محمد بن صالح العثيمين توضيحاً لعبارة ابن القيم :” ومراده بالمعبود والمتبوع والمطاع غير الصالحين ، أما الصالحون فليسوا طواغيت وإن عبدوا – أو اتبعوا – أو أطيعوا فالاصنام التي تعبد من دون الله الواغيت ، وعلماء السوء الذين يدعون الي الضلال والكفر ، أو يدعون الي البدع ، او الي تحليل ما حرم الله ، أو تحريم ما أحل الله طواغيت ، والذين يزينون لولاة الأمر الخروج عن شريعة الاسلام بنظم دستوردونها مخالفة لنظام الدين الاسلامي طواغيت ، لأن  هؤلاء تجاوزوا حدهم ، فان حد العالم أن يكون متبعاً لما جاء به النبي صلىالله عليه وسلم ، لأن العلماء حقيقة ورثة الأنبياء ، يرثونهم في أمتهم علماً ، وعملاً ، وأخلاقاً ودعوة وتعليماً ، فاذا تجاوزوا هذا الحد وصاروا يزينون للحكام الخروج عن شريعة الاسلام بمثل هذا النظم فهم طواغيت ، لانهم تجاوزوا ما كان يجب   عليهم أن يكونوا من متابعة الشريعة . وأما قوله – رحمه الله – ( أو مطاع) فيريد به الأمراء الذين يطاعون شرعاً أو قدرا ، فالأمراء يطاعون شرعاً اذا أمروا بما لا يخالف أمر الله ورسوله ، وفي هذا الحال لا يصدق عليهم أنهم طواغيت ، والواجب لهم علي الرعية     السمع والطاعة ، وطاعتهم لولاة الأمر في هذا هذا الحال بهذا القيد طاعة لله عزوجل.” [شرح ثلاثة الأصول 151]

“ He means the objects of worship and those followed and obeyed, other than the righteous people since the righteous ones are not Tawagheet, even if some people do worship them, or follow them or obey them (wrongly). The idols that are worshiped are Tawagheet. The evil scholars that call to misguidance and disbelief, or innovation, or who declare legal as illegal, or illegal what Allah has made legal, and also those who impress upon the authorities to rule by other than the Islamic Law and embellish these man-made laws and constitutions which are in contradiction to the Islamic laws in their eyes, (they all) are Tawagheet because they have exceeded their bounds. The boundary line of a scholar is that he follows the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him.  The true scholars are the inheritors of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, and they pass knowledge and good deeds to the community of believers by their excellent and exemplary manners, teachings and propagation. If they go beyond their bounds and beatify to the rulers leaving the Islamic laws and rulings of other systems, then they are Taaghoot since they went beyond their duty that was to follow the laws of Islam. [Sharh al-Usul ath-Thalaathah 151]  He then mentions that the rulers and commanders who order that which does not contradict the Islamic law are not Tawagheet, and that we are bound by Islamic law to obey them in obedience to Allah. His explanation emphasizes the extremely dangerous responsibility that the scholars, jurists and advisers carry on their shoulders, since not only they must have proper knowledge but also disseminate and clarify that knowledge with courage and fortitude to the people of power and leaders.

There is much more to explain here, but let this suffice in this sitting and may Allah guide us to worship Allah sincerely, without ascribing partner, and avoid all Tawaagheet

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